Panini pä´nēnē [key], fl. c.400 BC, Indian grammarian. His Ashtādhyāyī [eight books] (tr. 1891) is one of the earliest works of descriptive linguistics and is also the first individually authored treatise on Sanskrit. Each of its 3,995 rules governing roots and suffixes is introduced in a sutra, a concise aphorism. The Ashtādhyāyī also contains historical, social, and geographical information. It is still used in the Brahmanic schools in India.

See his Ashtādhyāyī, ed. by S. C. Vasu (tr. 1962); studies by T. Goldstuecher (1860, repr. 1965) and V. Misra (1966).

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