Nepal | Facts & Information

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Facts & Figures

  • President: Bidhya Devi Bhandari (2015)

    Prime Minister: Sher Bahadur Deuba (2021)

    Land area: 55,348 sq mi (143,351 sq km); total area: 56,826 sq mi (147,181 sq km); water area: 1,478 sq mi (3,830 sq km)

    Population (2022 est.): 30,666,598 (growth rate: .78 birth rate: 17.53/1000; infant mortality rate: 25.13/1000; life expectancy: 72.4

    Capital and largest city (2011 est.): Kathmandu, 1.521 million

    Other large cities: Biratnagar, 174,600; Lalitpur, 169,100

    Monetary unit: Nepalese rupee

    Current government officials

    Languages: Nepali (official) 44.6%, Maithali 11.7%, Bhojpuri 6%, Tharu 5.8%, Tamang 5.1%, Newar 3.2%, Magar 3%, Bajjika 3%, Urdu 2.6%, Avadhi 1.9%, Limbu 1.3%, Gurung 1.2%, other 10.4%, unspecified 0.2% note: 123 languages reported as mother tongue in 2011 national census; many in government and business also speak English (2011 est.)

    Ethnicity/race: Chhettri 16.6%, Brahman-Hill 12.2%, Magar 7.1%, Tharu 6.6%, Tamang 5.8%, Newar 5%, Kami 4.8%, Muslim 4.4%, Yadav 4%, Rai 2.3%, Gurung 2%, Damai/Dholii 1.8%, Thakuri 1.6%, Limbu 1.5%, Sarki 1.4%, Teli 1.4%, Chamar/Harijan/Ram 1.3%, Koiri/Kushwaha 1.2%, other 19% note: 125 caste/ethnic groups were reported in the 2011 national census (2011 est.)

    Religions: Hindu 81.3%, Buddhist 9%, Muslim 4.4%, Kirant 3.1%, Christian 1.4%, other 0.5%, unspecifed 0.2% (2011 est.)

    Literacy rate: 67.9% (2018 est.)

    Economic summary: GDP/PPP (2020 est.): $110.72 billion; per capita $3,800. Real growth rate: 7.9%. Inflation: 4.5% (2017). Unemployment: 3% (2017 est.). Arable land: 15.1%. Agriculture: rice, corn, wheat, sugarcane, root crops; milk, water buffalo meat. Labor force: 16.81 million; note: severe lack of skilled labor (2017 est.); agriculture 69%, industry 12%, services 19%. Industries: tourism, carpet, textile; small rice, jute, sugar, and oilseed mills; cigarettes, cement and brick production. Natural resources: quartz, water, timber, hydropower, scenic beauty, small deposits of lignite, copper, cobalt, iron ore. Exports: $1.79 billion (2020 est.): carpets, clothing, leather goods, jute goods, grain. Major trading partners (exports): India 68%, United States 10% (2019). Imports: $10.68 billion (2020 est.): gold, machinery and equipment, petroleum products, fertilizer. Major trading partners (imports): India 70%, China 15% (2019).

    Communications: Telephones: main lines in use: 726,000 (2020); mobile cellular: 38.213 million (2020). Broadcast media: state operates 3 TV stations, as well as national and regional radio stations; 117 television channels are licensed, among those 71 are cable television channels, three are distributed through Direct-To-Home (DTH) system, and four are digital terrestrial; 736 FM radio stations are licensed and at least 314 of those radio stations are community radio stations (2019). Internet hosts: 41,256 (2012). Internet users: 11,071,987 (2020).

    Transportation: Railways: total: 59 km (2018). Roadways: total: 27,990 km; paved: 11,890 km; unpaved: 16,100 km (2016). Ports and harbors: none. Airports: 47 (2021).

    International disputes: joint border commission continues to work on small disputed sections of boundary with India; India has instituted a stricter border regime to restrict transit of Maoist insurgents.

    Major sources and definitions

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