This provides the answers and solutions for the Put Me in, Coach! exercise boxes, organized by sections.

Taking the Burden out of Proofs

1. Yes
2. Theorem 8.3: If two angles are complementary to the same angle, then these two angles are congruent.

Given: ∠A and ∠B are complementary, and ∠C and ∠B are complementary.

Prove: ∠A ~= ∠C.

Statements Reasons
1. ∠A and ∠B are complementary, and ∠C and ∠B are complementary. Given
2. m∠A + m∠B = 90º , m∠C + m∠B = 90º Definition of complementary
3. m∠A = 90 º - m∠B, m∠C = 90º - m∠B Subtraction property of equality
4. m∠A = m∠C Substitution (step 3)
5. ∠A ~= ∠C Definition of ~=

Proving Segment and Angle Relationships

1. If E is between D and F, then DE = DF − EF.

Given: E is between D and F

Prove: DE = DF − EF.

Statements Reasons
1. E is between D and F Given
2. D, E, and F are collinear points, and E is on ¯DF Definition of between
3. DE + EF = DF Segment Addition Postulate
4. DE = DF − EF Subtraction property of equality

2. If →BD divides ∠ABC into two angles, ∠ABD and ∠DBC, then m∠ABC = m∠ABC - m∠DBC.

Given: →BD divides ∠ABC into two angles, ∠ABD and ∠DBC

Prove: m∠ABD = m∠ABC - m∠DBC.

Statements Reasons
1. →BD divides ∠ABC into two angles, ∠ABD and ∠DBC Given
2. m∠ABD + m∠DBC = m∠ABC Angle Addition Postulate
3. m∠ABD = m∠ABC - m∠DBC Subtraction property of equality

3. The angle bisector of an angle is unique.

Given: ∠ABC with two angle bisectors: →BD and →BE.

Prove: m∠DBC = 0.

Statements Reasons
1. →BD and →BE bisect ∠ABC Given
2. ∠ABC ~= ∠DBC and ∠ABE ~= ∠EBC Definition of angel bisector
3. m∠ABD = m∠DBC and m∠ABE ~= m∠EBC Definition of ~=
4. m∠ABD + m∠DBE + m∠EBC = m∠ABC Angle Addition Postulate
5. m∠ABD + m∠DBC = m∠ABC and m∠ABE + m∠EBC = m∠ABC Angle Addition Postulate
6. 2m∠ABD = m∠ABC and 2m∠EBC = m∠ABC Substitution (steps 3 and 5)
7. m∠ABD = m∠ABC/2 and m∠EBC = m∠ABC/2 Algebra
8. m∠ABC/2 + m∠DBE + m∠ABC/2 = m∠ABC Substitution (steps 4 and 7)
9. m∠ABC + m∠DBE = m∠ABC Algebra
10. m∠DBE = 0 Subtraction property of equality

4. The supplement of a right angle is a right angle.

Given: ∠A and ∠B are supplementary angles, and ∠A is a right angle.

Prove: ∠B is a right angle.

Statements Reasons
1. ∠A and ∠B are supplementary angles, and ∠A is a right angle Given
2. m∠A + m∠B = 180º Definition of supplementary angles
3. m∠A = 90º Definition of right angle
4. 90º + m∠B = 180º Substitution (steps 2 and 3)
5. m∠B = 90º Algebra
6. ∠B is a right angle Definition of right angle

Proving Relationships Between Lines

1. m∠6 = 105º , m∠8 = 75º
2. Theorem 10.3: If two parallel lines are cut by a transversal, then the alternate exterior angles are congruent.

Given: l ‌ ‌ m cut by a transversal t.

Prove: ∠1 ~= ∠3.

Statements Reasons
1. l ‌ ‌ m cut by a transversal t Given
2. ∠1 and ∠2 are vertical angles Definition of vertical angles
3. ∠2 and ∠3 are corresponding angles Definition of corresponding angles
4. ∠2 ~= ∠3 Postulate 10.1
5. ∠1 ~= ∠2 Theorem 8.1
6. ∠1 ~= ∠3 Transitive property of 3.

3. Theorem 10.5: If two parallel lines are cut by a transversal, then the exterior angles on the same side of the transversal are supplementary angles.

Given: l ‌ ‌ m cut by a transversal t.

Prove: ∠1 and ∠3 are supplementary.

Statement Reasons
1. l ‌ ‌ m cut by a transversal t Given
2. ∠1 and ∠2 are supplementary angles, and m∠1 + m∠2 = 180º Definition of supplementary angles
3. ∠2 and ∠3 are corresponding angles Definition of corresponding angles
4. ∠2 ~= ∠3 Postulate 10.1
5. m∠2 ~= m∠3 Definition of ~=
6. m∠1 + m∠3 = 180º Substitution (steps 2 and 5)
7. ∠1 and ∠3 are supplementary Definition of supplementary

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4. Theorem 10.9: If two lines are cut by a transversal so that the alternate exterior angles are congruent, then these lines are parallel.

Given: Lines l and m are cut by a transversal t, with ∠1 ~= ∠3.

Prove: l ‌ ‌ m.

Statement Reasons
1. Lines l and m are cut by a transversal t, with ∠1 ~= ∠3 Given
2. ∠1 and ∠2 are vertical angles Definition of vertical angles
3. ∠1 ~= ∠2 Theorem 8.1
4. ∠2 ~= ∠3 Transitive property of ~=.
5. ∠2 and ∠3 are corresponding angles Definition of corresponding angles
6. l ‌ ‌ m Theorem 10.7

5. Theorem 10.11: If two lines are cut by a transversal so that the exterior angles on the same side of the transversal are supplementary, then these lines are parallel.

Given: Lines l and m are cut by a transversal t, ∠1 and ∠3 are supplementary angles.

Prove: l ‌ ‌ m.

Statement Reasons
1. Lines l and m are cut by a transversal t, and ∠1 are ∠3 supplementary angles Given
2. ∠2 and ∠1 are supplementary angles Definition of supplementary angles
3. ∠3 ~= ∠2 Example 2
4. ∠3 and ∠2 are corresponding angles Definition of corresponding angles
5. l ‌ ‌ m Theorem 10.7

Two's Company. Three's a Triangle

1. An isosceles obtuse triangle
2. The acute angles of a right triangle are complementary.

Given: ΔABC is a right triangle, and ∠B is a right angle.

Prove: ∠A and ∠C are complementary angles.

Statement Reasons
1. ΔABC is a right triangle, and ∠B is a right angle Given
2. m∠B = 90º Definition of right angle
3. m∠A + m∠B + m∠C = 180º Theorem 11.1
4. m∠A + 90º + m∠C = 180º Substitution (steps 2 and 3)
5. m∠A + m∠C = 90º Algebra
6. ∠A and ∠C are complementary angles Definition of complementary angles

3. Theorem 11.3: The measure of an exterior angle of a triangle equals the sum of the measures of the two nonadjacent interior angles.

Statement Reasons
1. ΔABC with exterior angle ∠BCD Given
2. ∠DCA is a straight angle, and m∠DCA = 180º Definition of straight angle
3. m∠BCA + m∠BCD = m∠DCA Angle Addition Postulate
4. m∠BCA + m∠BCD = 180º Substitution (steps 2 and 3)
5. m∠BAC + m∠ABC + m∠BCA = 180º Theorem 11.1
6. m∠BAC + m∠ABC + m∠BCA = m∠BCA + m∠BCD Substitution (steps 4 and 5)
7. m∠BAC + m∠ABC = m∠BCD Subtraction property of equality

4. 12 units2

5. 30 units2

6. No, a triangle with these side lengths would violate the triangle inequality.

Congruent Triangles

1. Reflexive property: ΔABC ~= ΔABC.

Symmetric property: If ΔABC ~= ΔDEF, then ΔDEF ~= ΔABC.

Transitive property: If ΔABC ~= ΔDEF and ΔDEF ~= ΔRST, then ΔABC ~= ΔRST.

2. Proof: If ¯AC ~= ¯CD and ∠ACB ~= ∠DCB as shown in Figure 12.5, then ΔACB ~= ΔDCB.

Statement Reasons
1. ¯AC ~= ¯CD and ∠ACB ~= ∠DCB Given
2. ¯BC ~= ¯BC Reflexive property of ~=
3. ΔACB ~= ΔDCB SAS Postulate

3. If ¯CB ⊥ ¯AD and ∠ACB ~= ∠DCB, as shown in Figure 12.8, then ΔACB ~= ΔDCB.

Statement Reasons
1. ¯CB ⊥ ¯AD and ∠ACB ~= ∠DCB Given
2. ∠ABC and ∠DBC are right angles Definition of ⊥
3. m∠ABC = 90º and m∠DBC = 90º Definition of right angles
4. m∠ABC = m∠DBC Substitution (step 3)
5. ∠ABC ~= ∠DBC Definition of ~=
6. ¯BC ~= ¯BC Reflexive property of ~=
7. ΔACB ~= ΔDCB ASA Postulate

4. If ¯CB ⊥ ¯AD and ∠CAB ~= ∠CDB, as shown in Figure 12.10, then ΔACB~= ΔDCB.

Statement Reasons
1. ¯CB ⊥ ¯AD and ∠CAB ~= ∠CDB Given
2. ∠ABC and ∠DBC are right angles Definition of ⊥
3. m∠ABC = 90º and m∠DBC = 90º Definition of right angles
4. m∠ABC = m∠DBC Substitution (step 3)
5. ∠ABC ~= ∠DBC Definition of ~=
6. ¯BC ~= ¯BC Reflexive property of ~=
7. ΔACB ~= ΔDCB AAS Theorem

5. If ¯CB ⊥ ¯AD and ¯AC ~= ¯CD, as shown in Figure 12.12, then ΔACB ~= ΔDCB.

Statement Reasons
1. ¯CB ⊥ ¯AD and ¯AC ~= ¯CD Given
2. ΔABC and ΔDBC are right triangles Definition of right triangle
3. ¯BC ~= ¯BC Reflexive property of ~=
4. ΔACB ~= ΔDCB HL Theorem for right triangles

6. If ∠P ~= ∠R and M is the midpoint of ¯PR, as shown in Figure 12.17, then ∠N ~= ∠Q.

Statement Reasons
1. ∠P ~= ∠R and M is the midpoint of ¯PR Given
2. ¯PM ~= ¯MR Definition of midpoint
3. ∠NMP and ∠RMQ are vertical angles Definition of vertical angles
4. ∠NMP ~= ∠RMQ Theorem 8.1
5. ΔPMN ~= RMQ ASA Postulate
6. ∠N ~= ∠Q CPOCTAC

Smiliar Triangles

1. x = 11
2. x = 12
3. 40º and 140º
4. If ∠A ~= ∠D as shown in Figure 13.6, then BC/AB = CE/DE.
Statement Reasons
1. ∠A ~= ∠D Given
2. ∠BCA and ∠DCE are vertical angles Definition of vertical angles
3. ∠BCA ~= ∠DCE Theorem 8.1
4. ΔACB ~ ΔDCE AA Similarity Theorem
5. BC/AB = CE/DE CSSTAP

5. 150 feet.

Opening Doors with Similar Triangles

1. If a line is parallel to one side of a triangle and passes through the midpoint of a second side, then it will pass through the midpoint of the third side.

Given: ¯DE ‌ ‌ ¯AC and D is the midpoint of ¯AB.

Prove: E is the midpoint of ¯BC.

Statement Reasons
1. ¯DE ‌ ‌ ¯AC and D is the midpoint of ¯AB. Given
2. ¯DE ‌ ‌ ¯AC and is cut by transversal ↔AB Definition of transversal
3. ∠BDE and ∠BAC are corresponding angles Definition of corresponding angles
4. ∠BDE ~= ∠BAC Postulate 10.1
5. ∠B ~= ∠B Reflexive property of ~=
6. ΔABC ~ ΔDBE AA Similarity Theorem
7. DB/AB = BE/BC CSSTAP
8. DB = AB/2 Theorem 9.1
9. DB/AB = 1/2 Algebra
10. 1/2 = BE/BC Substitution (steps 7 and 9)
11. BC = 2BE Algebra
12. BE + EC = BC Segment Addition Postulate
13. BE + EC = 2BE Substitution (steps 11 and 12)
14. EC = BE Algebra
15. E is the midpoint of ¯BC Definition of midpoint

2. AC = 4√3 , AB = 8√ , RS = 16, RT = 8√3

3. AC = 4√2 , BC = 4√2

1. AD = 63, BC = 27, RS = 45
2. ¯AX, ¯CZ, and ¯DY

3. Theorem 15.5: In a kite, one pair of opposite angles is congruent.

Given: Kite ABCD.

Prove: ∠B ~= ∠D.

Statement Reasons
1. ABCD is a kite Given
2. ¯AB ~= ¯AD and ¯BC ~= ¯DC Definition of a kite
3. ¯AC ~= ¯AC Reflexive property of ~=
4. ΔABC ~= ΔADC SSS Postulate
5. ∠B ~= ∠D CPOCTAC

4. Theorem 15.6: The diagonals of a kite are perpendicular, and the diagonal opposite the congruent angles bisects the other diagonal.

Given: Kite ABCD.

Prove: ¯BD ⊥ ¯AC and ¯BM ~= ¯MD.

Statement Reasons
1. ABCD is a kite Given
2. ¯AB ~= ¯AD and ¯BC ~= ¯DC Definition of a kite
3. ¯AC ~= ¯AC Reflexive property of ~=
4. ΔABC ~= ΔADC SSS Postulate
5. ∠BAC ~= ∠DAC CPOCTAC
6. ¯AM ~= ¯AM Reflexive property of ~=
7. ΔABM ~= ΔADM SAS Postulate
8. ¯BM ~= ¯MD CPOCTAC
9. ∠BMA ~= ∠DMA CPOCTAC
10. m∠BMA = m∠DMA Definition of ~=
11. ∠MBD is a straight angle, and m∠BMD = 180º Definition of straight angle
12. m∠BMA + m∠DMA = m∠BMD Angle Addition Postulate
13. m∠BMA + m∠DMA = 180º Substitution (steps 9 and 10)
14. 2m∠BMA = 180º Substitution (steps 9 and 12)
15. m∠BMA = 90º Algebra
16. ∠BMA is a right angle Definition of right angle
17. ¯BD ⊥ ¯AC Definition of ⊥

5. Theorem 15.9: Opposite angles of a parallelogram are congruent.

Given: Parallelogram ABCD.

Statement Reasons
1. Parallelogram ABCD has diagonal ¯AC. Given
2. ΔABC ~= ΔCDA Theorem 15.7

6. 144 units2

7. 180 units2

8. Kite ABCD has area 48 units2.

Parallelogram ABCD has area 150 units2.

Rectangle ABCD has area 104 units2.

Rhombus ABCD has area 35/2 units2.

Anatomy of a Circle

1. Circumference: 20π feet, length of ˆRST = 155/18π feet
2. 9π feet2
3. 15π feet2
4. 28º

The Unit Circle and Trigonometry

1. 3/√34 = 3√34/34
2. 1/√3 = √3/3
3. tangent ratio = √40/3, sine ratio = √40/7
4. tangent ratio = 5/√56 = 5√56/56, cosine ratio = √56/9

Excerpted from The Complete Idiot's Guide to Geometry © 2004 by Denise Szecsei, Ph.D.. All rights reserved including the right of reproduction in whole or in part in any form. Used by arrangement with Alpha Books, a member of Penguin Group (USA) Inc.

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