revolution settlementagainst a return of the Roman Catholic Stuarts. George's succession brought the Whigs to power, and the early years of his reign saw constant maneuvering for power among his ministers—the 1st Earl Stanhope , the 3d earl of Sunderland , Viscount Townshend , and Robert Walpole . The principal achievement of these years was the Quadruple Alliance of 1718, which provided an international guarantee of the Hanoverian succession and the status quo of the Peace of Utrecht (1713). Rising to power in the South Sea Bubble crisis, Walpole dominated the end of the reign, beginning his long tenure as virtual prime minister. George was succeeded by his son, George II.
See biography by J. H. Plumb, The First Four Georges (1956); A. Redman, The House of Hanover (1960, repr. 1968); B. Williams, The Whig Supremacy, 1714–60 (2d ed. 1962); R. Hatton, George the First: Elector and King (1978).
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