Germany | Facts & Information
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Facts & Figures
President: Frank-Walter Steinmeier (2017)
Chancellor: Olaf Scholz (2021)
Land area: 135,236 sq mi (350,261 sq km); total area: 137,846 sq mi (357,021 sq km)
Population (2022 est.): 84,316,622 (growth rate: –0.11%); birth rate: 9.08/1000; infant mortality rate: 3.19/1000; life expectancy: 81.51
Capital and largest city (2022 est.): Berlin (capital since Oct. 3, 1990), 3.571 million
Other large cities: Hamburg, 1.788 million; Munich, 1.566 million; Cologne, 1.137 million; Frankfurt, 791,000
Monetary unit: Euro (formerly Deutsche mark)
National name: Bundesrepublik Deutschland
Ethnicity/race: German 86.3%, Turkish 1.8%, Polish 1%, Syrian 1%, Romanian 1%, other/stateless/unspecified 8.9% (2020 est.)
Religions: Roman Catholic 26.7%, Protestant 24.3%, Muslim 3.5%, other 4.8%, none 40.7% (2020 est.)
National Holiday: Unity Day, October 3
Literacy rate: 99% (2003 est.)
Economic summary GDP/PPP (2020 est.): $4,238,800,000,000; per capita $50,900. Real growth rate: 0.59%. Inflation: 1.4%. Unemployment: 4.98%. Arable land: 34.1%. Agriculture: potatoes, wheat, barley, sugar beets, fruit, cabbages; cattle, pigs, poultry. Labor force: 44.585 million; industry 24.2%, agriculture 1.4%, services 74.3% (2016). Industries: among the world's largest and most technologically advanced producers of iron, steel, coal, cement, chemicals, machinery, vehicles, machine tools, electronics, food and beverages, shipbuilding, textiles. Natural resources: iron ore, coal, potash, timber, lignite, uranium, copper, natural gas, salt, nickel, arable land. Exports: $1,671,650,000,000 (2020 est.): machinery, vehicles, chemicals, metals and manufactures, foodstuffs, textiles. Major trading partners (exports): United States 9%, France 8%, China 7%, Netherlands 6%, United Kingdom 6%, Italy 5%, Poland 5%, Austria 5% (2019). Imports: $1,452,560,000,000 (2020 est.): machinery, vehicles, chemicals, foodstuffs, textiles, metals. Major trading partners (imports): Netherlands 9%, China 8%, France 7%, Belgium 6%, Poland 6%, Italy 6%, Czechia 5%, United States 5% (2019).
Communications: Telephones: main lines in use: 38.3 million (2020); mobile cellular: 107.4 million (2020). Broadcast media: a mixture of publicly-operated and privately-owned TV and radio stations; national and regional public broadcasters compete with nearly 400 privately-owned national and regional TV stations; more than 90% of households have cable or satellite TV; hundreds of radio stations including multiple national radio networks, regional radio networks, and a large number of local radio stations (2008) Internet hosts: 20.043 million (2012). Internet users: 74,844,784 (2020).
Transportation: Railways: total: 33,590 km (2017). Roadways: total: 625,000 km (includes 12,996 km of expressways) (2017). Waterways: 7,467 km (2012); note: Rhine River carries most goods; Main-Danube Canal links North Sea and Black Sea. Ports and harbors: Bremen, Bremerhaven, Brunsbuttel, Duisburg, Frankfurt, Hamburg, Karlsruhe, Mainz, Rostock, Wilhemshaven. Airports: 539 (2021).
International disputes: none.