2001 National Medal of Science Recipients
Andreas Acrivos, Albert Einstein Professor of Science and Engineering, City College of the City University of New York, for his pioneering research in fluid mechanics and leadership in the fluid mechanics and chemical engineering communities.
Francisco J. Ayala, Donald Bren Professor of Biological Sciences, University of California at Irvine, for his theoretical and experimental discoveries on the origin of species, genetic diversity, and population dynamics that led to a new understanding of biological evolution, and for his distinguished contributions to education and the promotion of public understanding of science.
George F. Bass, Distinguished Professor Emeritus of Nautical Archaeology and Founder, The Institute of Nautical Archaeology, Texas A&M University, for pioneering ocean technology and creating a new branch of scholarship, nautical archaeology, which has furthered understanding of the histories of economics, technology, and literacy.
Mario R. Capecchi, Professor of Human Genetics, University of Utah School of Medicine, for his groundbreaking biomedical research, which has provided a powerful tool for understanding disease mechanisms and gene functions.
Marvin L. Cohen, University Professor of Physics, University of California at Berkeley, for his creation and application of a quantum theory for explaining and predicting properties of real materials, which formed the basis for semiconductor physics and nanoscience.
Ernest R. Davidson, Distinguished Professor and the Robert and Marjorie Mann Chair of Computational Quantum Chemistry, Indiana University, for his innovative leadership and numerous conceptual and algorithmic developments that led to the field of computational quantum chemistry and made possible the accurate modeling of chemical reactions and molecular response to radiation.
Raymond Davis, Research Professor, Brookhaven National Laboratory, for creating the first experiment to measure solar neutrino flux, continuing research on tracking the time dependence of the solar neutrino flux, and creating the new field of neutrino astronomy.
Ann M. Graybiel, Walter A. Rosenblith Professor of Neuroscience, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, for her pioneering contributions to the understanding of the anatomy and physiology of the brain, including the structure, chemistry, and function of the pathways involved in thought and movement.
Charles D. Keeling, Professor of Oceanography, Scripps Institution of Oceanography, for his pioneering and fundamental research on atmospheric and oceanic carbon dioxide, the basis for understanding the global carbon cycle and global warming.
Gene E. Likens, Director and President and G. Evelyn Hutchinson Chair in Ecology, Institute of Ecosystem Studies, for his discovery of acid rain in North America and his sustained leadership in developing the fields of ecology and ecosystem science.
Victor A. McKusick, University Professor of Medical Genetics, Professor of Biology, Professor of Epidemiology, and Professor of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, for his contributions to the founding of medical genetics and the human genome project.
Calyampudi R. Rao, Eberly Professor in Statistics, Pennsylvania State University, for his pioneering contributions to statistical theory and methodology, which have enriched the physical, biological, mathematical, economic, and engineering sciences.
Gabor A. Somorjai, Professor of Chemistry and University Professor, University of California at Berkeley, for his innovative study of surfaces at the molecular level, which has revolutionized the way scientists think about chemical reactions and has contributed to the development of many useful products, including high-octane gasoline and plastic polymers.
Elias M. Stein, Albert Baldwin Dod Professor of Mathematics, Princeton University, for his contributions to mathematical analysis, especially harmonic analysis, partial differential equations, several complex variables, and representation theory.
Harold Varmus, President and Chief Executive Officer, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, for his codiscovery of the cellular origins of retroviral oncogenes, which heralded a new era in the control of human cancer, and for reinvigorating the nation's medical research enterprise.