The central coast of the region is mostly high and rocky, with volcanic ridges and the crater of Vesuvius. The northern and southern coastal areas are fertile plains, famous since ancient times for their agricultural output. The interior of Campania is mountainous. The area had significant out-migration in the late 19th and early 20th cent., particularly to the United States. Overpopulation continues to be a problem, as the per capita income is far below the Italian average.
The region's farm products include grapes, citrus fruit, olives, apricots, grain, and vegetables. Industry is mostly clustered along the shore of the Bay of Naples; manufactures include textiles, shoes, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, refined petroleum, metal goods, wine, and processed food. There is also a thriving tourist industry.
Various Italic tribes, Greek colonists, Etruscans, and Samnites lived in the region before it was conquered (4th–2d cent.
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