Minneapolis mĭnˌēăpˈəlĭs [key], city (2020 pop. 429,606), seat of Hennepin co., E Minn., at the head of navigation on the Mississippi River, at St. Anthony Falls; inc. 1856. The largest city in the state and a port of entry, it is a major industrial and rail hub. With adjacent St. Paul (the two are known as the Twin Cities), it is the processing, distribution, and trade center for a vast grain and cattle area. Minneapolis is also a banking and financial center with a significant high-technology industry. Chief among the many manufactures are food products, electronic equipment, instruments, graphic art products, machinery, fabricated metals, chemicals, and textiles. Although the central city's population has declined since the 1970s, the suburbs have grown. An influx of African Americans and immigrants began to change the city's racial composition in the 1990s.

The falls were visited by Louis Hennepin in 1683; Fort Snelling was established in 1819; and a sawmill was built at the falls in 1821. The village of St. Anthony was settled c.1839 on the east side of the river near the falls. Minneapolis originated on the river's west side c.1847 and included much of the reservation of Fort Snelling. It annexed St. Anthony in 1872. The city became the country's foremost lumber center, and after the plains were planted with wheat and the railroads were built, flour milling developed, with the 50-ft (15-m) falls supplying power. During the early 20th century, the city was marked by anti-Black and antisemitic laws, including restrictive covenants that limited access to housing. In 1945, Hubert Humphrey was elected mayor, bringing much needed reforms to the city. Nonetheless, racial tensions continued, culminating in riots in 1966-67. Nearly 40 percent of the historic downtown area was destroyed through two urban renewal campaigns in 1958 and 1963, further uprooting neighborhood communities. In 2020, the city came to national attention following the killing of George Floyd by a policeman, further inspiring the Black Lives Mattermovement. A ballot initiative to replace the city's police department with a public safety agency failed in 2021; it was opposed by the current mayor moderate Democrat Jacob Frey, who won reelection that year.

The city was laid out with wide streets and has 22 lakes and 153 parks. Of interest are Fort Snelling State Park, several art galleries and museums (including the Walker Art Center, Minneapolis Institute of Arts, Weisman Art Museum, and the American Swedish Institute), the Guthrie Theater, and the grain exchange. Minneapolis also has several noteworthy skyscrapers, including those by Cesar Pelli and by Philip Johnson and John Burgee. In Minnehaha Park is the Stevens House (1849), the city's first frame house. The city's main shopping avenue is a 10-block mall lined with trees and flowers, with a skyway system of walks for pedestrians. The Minnesota Orchestra was founded there in 1903. The city is the seat of the Univ. of Minnesota, Augsburg College, and the Minneapolis College of Art and Design. The Minnesota Twins (baseball), Timberwolves (basketball), and Vikings (football) are the city's professional sports teams.

See C. R. Walker, American City, (1937, repr. 1971); L. M. Kane, The Fall of St. Anthony: The Waterfall That Built Minneapolis (1987).

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