Helena. 1 City (2020 pop. 20,633), Jefferson and Shelby cos., central Ala.; inc. 1877. White settlers began to occupy the area after the War of 1812; with the opening of the railroad during the Civil War, it became an important center of coal and iron mining. In late March 1865, union general James Harrison Wilson led a raid that destroyed much of the town. Its industrial base was rebuilt following the war, with mining and an iron-processing plant reopened. In early May 1933, a major tornado tore through town, once again destroying much of its infrastructure. In the late 20th century, the town became a residential suburb of Birmingham. In 2021, another tornado brought minor damage to the area.

2 Town (2020 pop. 9,519), seat of Phillips co., E central Ark., on the Mississippi River and at the southern end of Crowley's Ridge; inc. 1833. It is a rail terminus and river port with an economy based on cotton, lumber, and agricultural processing. The city was occupied by Union troops in the Civil War; they were attacked unsuccessfully by Confederates in the Battle of Helena (July 4, 1863).

3 City (2020 pop. 32,091), state capital and seat of Lewis and Clark co., W central Mont., on the eastern slope of the Continental Divide; inc. 1870. It is a commercial, trading, and shipping center in a ranching and mining area. Manufactures include concrete, sheet metal, and dairy products. Major electronics, engineering, communications, and health-care organizations have offices in Helena, and a Federal Reserve bank is there. Agricultural products include cattle, sheep, wheat, barley, and oats.

The city was founded after the discovery of gold (1864) in Last Chance Gulch (now Helena's main street) and grew rapidly. In 1875 a general election ratified the choice of Helena to replace Virginia City as territorial capital. In the 1890s it maintained its position as state capital against the rivalry of Anaconda. As the area's stores of gold and silver were depleted, other minerals, including copper, lead, and zinc were discovered and exploited.

Carroll College is in the city, and landmarks include the Original Governor's Mansion (1888), the Holter Museum of Art, the Museum of Gold, the Montana Historical Society Museum, and the Myrna Loy Center for the Performing and Media Arts. The capitol building and the civic center also have noteworthy historical and artistic collections. The city is surrounded by scenic mountains and is the headquarters of Helena National Forest.

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