Union of Soviet Socialist Republics: The Era of Détente
The Era of Détente
In 1969, the USSR, the United States, and about 100 other nations signed a treaty banning the spread of nuclear weapons to countries not possessing them. Strategic arms limitation talks (SALT) between the Soviet Union and the United States began in 1969, and they were continuing in 1974. When President Nixon visited Moscow in 1972, an agreement partially limiting strategic arms was signed (an agreement that was renewed during Nixon's 1974 visit to the USSR), along with accords on cooperation in space exploration, environmental matters, and trade. By this time Soviet-U.S. relations were described as having entered an era of détente, and the cold war was said to have ended. In 1973, Brezhnev toured the United States and met with Nixon.
A major objective of Soviet foreign policy in the early 1970s was to gain official recognition of the post–World War II settlement in Europe. In 1970 a landmark treaty with West Germany was signed (ratified in 1972) confirming existing boundaries in Europe (notably the eastern border of East Germany) and also renouncing the use of force to settle disputes. In 1972 the USSR, the United States, Great Britain, and France signed an accord regularizing the position of Berlin.
In 1973 a European security conference, which the USSR hoped would also help make permanent the status quo in Europe, formally opened. A second phase of SALT talks began, as well as negotiations for a mutual and balanced reduction of forces in Europe. The USSR gave considerable assistance to underdeveloped countries during the Brezhnev era. During the 1973 Arab-Israeli War the Soviet Union played a major role in equipping both the Egyptian and Syrian armies. At Tashkent in 1966, Kosygin mediated a dispute between India and Pakistan over Kashmir.
In the early 1970s there was a notable increase in both the size and quality of the Soviet military, especially the navy. In the “space race” with the United States, the USSR did not place a man on the moon (as the United States did in 1969) but made other important, but less spectacular, exploratory probes of space. In 1975 a symbolic linkup in space between Soviet and U.S. spacecraft capped the era of détente.
In 1975 the USSR signed the Helsinki Accords, which declared the postwar European boundaries inviolable and subject to change only by peaceful means. The Accords also contained provisions on human rights, and the Soviet government drew international criticism for harassing or imprisoning citizens who tried to monitor Soviet compliance with the Accords. A new “Brezhnev” constitution was promulgated in 1977, but differed little from the preceding Stalin constitution.
Sections in this article:
- Dissolution of the Union
- Glasnost and Perestroika
- The Gorbachev Era
- Détente Ends
- The Era of Détente
- Foreign Relations under Brezhnev
- Domestic Policy under Brezhnev
- The Brezhnev Era
- The Cuban Missile Crisis
- Foreign Relations under Khrushchev
- Domestic Policy under Khrushchev
- The Khrushchev Era
- The Cold War
- World War II
- Pre–World War II Foreign Relations
- Conservatism and Purges
- The First Five-Year Plan
- The Stalin Era
- Early Years
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