Nagaland näˈgəlănd [key], state (2001 provisional pop. 1,988,686), 6,365 sq mi (16,485 sq km), NE India. Kohima is the capital; the largest city is Dimapur. It is a wild, forested, and undeveloped region bounded by Myanmar on the east and the Indian states of Manipur on the south, Assam on the northwest, and Arunachal Pradesh on the north. The region is inhabited by Nagas, a Tibeto-Burman tribe, who formerly practiced head-hunting. More than 80% of the population is Christian. The state is governed by a chief minister and cabinet responsible to a bicameral legislature with one elected house and by a governor appointed by the president of India.

Formerly the Naga Hills–Tuensang area in Assam state, Nagaland gained full state status in 1961. During World War II, Kohima was the site in 1944 of a British and Indian victory over the Japanese that, together with the victory at Imphal, thwarted an invasion of India. In the mid-1990s, there were increased attacks by Naga guerrillas who favored extending the state of Nagaland to include Manipur and portions of the two other bordering states, as well as a portion of Myanmar. Talks with the guerrillas began in 1997, but there has continued to be fighting, often between guerrilla factions.

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