The Chang's turbulent upper course, called the Jinsha or Kinsha, is roughly half its total length and flows southeast through forested, steep-walled gorges 2,000–4,000 ft (610–1,220 m) deep. After receiving the Yalong River, its first great tributary, at the Sichuan-Yunnan border, the Chang turns NE toward the Sichuan basin. At Yibin, on the western edge of the Sichuan basin, the river becomes the Chang proper and is joined by the
four rivers of Sichuan (Min, Tuo, Fou, and Jailing). There is a hydroelectric power plant at Chongqing, on the basin's eastern edge.
Leaving the Sichuan basin, the Chang receives the Wu River and flows through the gorges that extend from Fengjieh to Yichang; temples and pagodas are perched on prominent hills along the gorges. The Three Gorges Dam, 30 mi (48 km) west of Yichang (constructed 1994–2006), is the world's largest concrete structure and hydroelectric station; its construction also flooded the spectacular gorges. The Gezhouba Dam near Yichang also regulates seasonally fluctuating water levels and harnesses the river's hydroelectric potential.
East of Yichang, the Chang enters the lake-studded middle basin of Hubei, Hunan, and Jiangxi provs., a rich agricultural and industrial region; Wuhan, at the confluence of the Han and Chang, is the principal city. The huge Dongting and Poyang lakes, which receive the Yuan, Zi, and Xiang rivers and the Gan River, respectively, are linked by numerous channels with the Chang and serve as natural overflow reservoirs. Now shallow because of sedimentation, the lakes are less effective as regulators of the Chang's flow. Dikes protect large areas of the river's middle basin from floodwaters. Although the Chang does not often experience the devastating floods that characterize the Huang He (Yellow River), it has occasionally caused wide damage; great floods occurred in 1931, 1954, and 1998. The fertile middle basin is China's most productive agricultural region; rice is the main crop.
The river enters the East China Sea through the extensive, ever-expanding delta region of Anhui and Jiangsu provs. Dikes have been built to reclaim coastal marshes and create additional farmland. The Chang carries its greatest volume during the summer rainy season. It is navigable for oceangoing vessels to Wuhan, c.600 mi (970 km) upstream; during the summer high-water period, Yichang, c.1,000 mi (1,610 km) upstream, is the head of navigation.
The South-to-North Water Diversion Project transfers water from the Chang and its tributaries to the Huang He, which often runs dry from overuse, and to Beijing, Tianjin, and other northern cities and provinces. The eastern route brings water from the lower Chang to the Huang He, Shandong prov., Tianjin, and other areas utilizing in part sections of the Grand Canal, and a central route connects the Han (a tributary of the Chang) to the Huang He, Beijing, Tianjin, and other areas. A third, western route, linking the headwaters of the Chang to those of the Huang He, is planned.
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright © 2023, Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.
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