Ibn Taymiyya, Taqiyy ad-Din Ahmad [key], 1263–1328, Muslim theologian and jurist. He lived in Damascus after the collapse of the central caliphate to the Mongol invasion from the East, and during the continuous threat of Christendom from the North and West. Influenced by Ibn Hanbal, he was unyielding in his political and religious positions, and was frequently persecuted and imprisoned. A prolific writer, Ibn Taymiyya advocated a doctrine of conservative reformism, stressing the need for communal solidarity. He remains one of the lasting influences on contemporary political Islam, notably on Wahhabiya (see Wahhabi) and Salafiyyah.
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