She succeeded Estrada in 2001 after street demonstrations forced him out and the supreme court declared the presidency vacant. Macapagal-Arroyo was elected to the office in her own right in 2004, but her win was marred by vote-rigging charges, and later (2007) in her term her husband was implicated in a kickback scandal. She was elected to the Philippine congress in 2010 and reelected in 2013 and 2016. In 2011 she was charged with involvement in vote fraud during the 2007 senate elections, and she was charged with corruption and other offenses in 2012. The corruption case was dismissed in 2016.
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright © 2012, Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.
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