See his autobiography (tr. 1889); biography by D. Mack Smith (1956, repr. 1969); biography by D. M. Smith (1956); G. M. Trevelyan, Garibaldi's Defence of the Roman Republic (1907, repr. 1971), Garibaldi and the Thousand (1909, repr. 1948), and Garibaldi and the Making of Italy (1911, repr. 1948); D. M. Smith, Cavour and Garibaldi, 1860 (1954); L. Riall, Garibaldi: Invention of a Hero (2007).
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