Bosch, Juan (Juan Bosch Gavino) hwän bōsh [key], 1909–2001, president of the Dominican Republic (Feb.–Sept., 1963). A teacher and writer, he spent 24 years in exile during the dictatorship of Rafael Trujillo and helped found (1939) the Dominican Revolutionary party. He returned (1961) to the Dominican Republic after the assassination of Trujillo and was elected president in the first free elections (Dec., 1962) held in 38 years. He introduced sweeping social and economic reforms but was ousted after seven months by military leaders who viewed him as too leftist. An attempt by his supporters to restore him to power in Apr., 1965, brought civil war and provoked armed intervention by U.S. troops. In 1966, Bosch was overwhelmingly defeated for the presidency by Joaquín Balaguer . After a voluntary exile in Europe, Bosch returned (1970) and joined the opposition to President Balaguer. In 1973 he founded the Dominican Liberation party, which he led until 1994. In 1978, 1982, 1986, 1990, and 1994 he again ran unsuccessfully for the presidency.
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