Sassou-Nguesso, Denis d?n? ss?-?ng?s? [key], 1943??, Congolese army officer and president (1979?92, 1997?) of Congo (Brazzaville). He served (1977?79) as the minister of national defense. As president he won approval for a new Marxist constitution and signed (1981) a friendship treaty with the USSR, while maintaining the Congo's strong economic ties with France. The increasing economic impoverishment of the Congo, however, led to a national political conference (1991) that stripped him of many powers. In 1992 he ran for reelection in a democratic contest and came in third. Prolonged fighting and unrest following disputed parliamentary elections in 1993 ultimately led to a victory by Sassou-Nguesso's forces in 1997, and he again became president. He was elected president in 2002 and reelected in 2009 and, after a referendum removed age and term limits, in 2016; the votes were marred by irregularities.
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