Vallandigham, Clement Laird
General Order No. 38,which threatened punishment for those declaring sympathy for the enemy, and Vallandigham was arrested, court-martialed, and sentenced to imprisonment for the rest of the war. President Lincoln commuted the sentence to banishment behind Confederate lines. The Peace Democrats of Ohio nevertheless nominated (July, 1863) Vallandigham for governor, but he was defeated by John Brough. He made his way from the Confederacy to Canada, and from there he returned to the United States and was allowed to go unmolested. In the presidential campaign of 1864, the Democratic platform, representing his views, demanded immediate cessation of hostilities. Made commander of the Sons of Liberty (see Knights of the Golden Circle), he was the most prominent of the Copperheads. After the war he was an unsuccessful aspirant to Congress.
See biography by his brother, J. L. Vallandigham (1872, repr. 1972); study by F. L. Klement (1970).
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