Wyszynski, Stefan [key], 1901–81, Polish prelate, cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church. Ordained in 1924, he received (1929) a doctorate in sociology and canon law from the Catholic Univ. of Lublin. He was active in the resistance during World War II. In 1946 he was consecrated bishop of Lublin. Pope Pius XII made Wyszynski archbishop of Gniezno and Warsaw and primate of Poland in 1949 and then a cardinal in 1953. A fierce opponent of the Polish Stalinist government's efforts to limit church influence, he was arrested and imprisoned (1953–56). In 1956, Wyszynski was restored to his functions by the new anti-Stalinist first secretary of the Communist party, Władysław Gomułka. A church-state agreement restoring religious education in state schools followed. Despite periodic setbacks, he subsequently enjoyed a considerable amount of personal and pastoral liberty. In 1962 he served as president of the Second Vatican Council.
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