Khalifa bin Hamad al-Thani
Khalifa bin Hamad al-Thani, 1932–2016, emir of Qatar (1972–95). Khalifa was the son of Hamad bin Abdullah al-Thani, the second emir's heir apparent, but Hamad died (1948) before the emir. During the 1960s Khalifa served as deputy emir and headed the ministries of petroleum, finance, and foreign affairs. He led Qatar into the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (1961), and became Qatar's first prime minister (1970). In 1972 he seized power from the emir, his cousin Ahmad bin Ali al-Thani. As emir, he reorganized the government, helped organize the Gulf Cooperation Council (1981), and transformed the country's economy with the income from oil and gas exports. He was deposed by his son Hamad bin Khalifa al-Thani.
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