Today there is a written literature in all the important languages of India, Pakistan, and Bangladesh, as well as a large literature in English intended to reach all the university-educated public regardless of native language. Among the best-known writers of the 19th and early 20th cent. are Rammohun Roy, Bankim Chandra Chatterjee, Vivekananda, Rabindranath Tagore, winner of the 1913 Nobel Prize in Literature, and Prem Chand, as well as Asadullah Khan Ghalib and Muhammad Iqbal, the Muslim poets who wrote in Urdu and in Persian. Later writers include R. K. Narayan, Raja Rao, Bhabhani Bhattacharya, Ahmed Ali, Khushwant Singh, Thakazhi Sivasankara Pillai, and Mulk Raj Anand in the field of fiction; Sarojini Naidu, Faiz Ahmed Faiz, Nazrul Islam, and the Bangladeshi Shamsur Rahman in the field of poetry; and Mohandas Gandhi, M. N. Roy, Jawaharlal Nehru, and Jaya Prakash Narayan in the field of politics.
See K. Kripalani, Modern Indian Literature (1970); T. W. Clark, The Novel in India (1970); M. Winternitz, A History of Indian Literature (2 vol., tr. 1927; repr. 1973).
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