The sages of Greece used to be called sophoi (wise men), but Pythagoras thought the word too arrogant, and adopted the compound philosophoi (lover of wisdom), whence “philosopher,” one who courts or loves wisdom.
Philosopher. “There was never yes philosopher who could endure the toothache patiently, however they have writ the style of gods, and made a push at chance and sufferance.” (Shakespeare: Much Ado About Nothing, v. 1.)
The Philosopher. Marcus Aurelius Antoninus is so called by Justin Martyr. (121, 161-180.) Leo VI., Emperor of the East. (866, 886-911.)
Porphyry, the Antichristian. (233-305.)
The Philosopher of China. Confucius. His mother called him Little Hillock,, from a knob on the top of his head (B.C. 551-479.)
The Philosopher of Ferney. Voltaire; so called from his château of Ferney, near Geneva. (1694-1778.) The Philosopher of Malmesbury. Thomas Hobbes, author of Leviathan. (1588-1679.)
The Philosopher of Persia. Abou Ebn Sina, of Shiraz. (Died 1037.) The Philosopher of Samosata. I acan.
“Just such another feast as was that of the Lapithæ described by the philosopher of Samosata.” —Rabelais: Pantagruel, book iv. 15.
The Philosopher of Sans-Souci'. Frederick the Great (1712, 1740-1786). The Philosopher of Wimbledon. John Horne Took, author of Diversions of Purley. (1736-1812.)
Source: Dictionary of Phrase and Fable, E. Cobham Brewer, 1894