Abgarus (The Grand). So the kings of Edessa were styled. Abimelech (my father the king). The chief ruler of the ancient Philistines. Agag (lord). The chief ruler of the Amalekites (4 syl.).
Akbar Khan (very-great chieftain). Hindustan.
Anax. The chief ruler of the ancient Greek kingdoms. Anaxandron was the over-king. Archon (The). The chief of the nine magistrates of Athens. The next in rank was called Basileus (3 syl.); and the third Polemarch (3 syl.), or Field-Marshal.
Asser or Assyr (blessed one). The chief ruler of ancient Assyria. Attabeg (father prince). Persia, 1118.
Augustus. The title of the reigning Emperor of Rome, when the heir presumptive was styled “Caesar.” (See Augustus.)
Autocrat (self-potentate). One whose power is absolute; Russia. Beglerbeg. (See Bey.)
Ben-Hadad (son of the sun or Hadad). The chief ruler of ancient Damascus. Bey of Tunis. In Turkey, a bey is the governor of a banner, and the chief over the seven banners is the beglar-bey.
Brenn or Brenhin (war-chief) of the ancient Gauls. A dictator appointed by the Druids in times of danger. Bretwalda (wielder of Britain). Chief king of the heptarchy.
Caesar Proper name adopted by the Roman emperors. (See Kaiser.) Calif (successor). Successors of Mahomet; now the Grand Signior of Turkey, and Sophi of Persia. Candace. Proper name adopted by the queens of Ethiopia.
Cazique (Ca-zeek'). American Indians; native princes of the ancient Peruvians, Cubans, Mexicans, etc. Chagan. The chief of the Avars.
Cham. (See Khan.)
Cral. The despot of ancient Servia.
Cyrus (mighty). Ancient Persia. (See Cyrus.) Czar (Caesar). Russia. Assumed by Ivan III., who married a princess of the Byzantine line, in 1472. He also introduced the double-headed black eagle of Byzantium as the national symbol.
Darius, Latin form of Darawesh (king). Ancient Persia. Dey. In Algiers, before it was annexed to France in 1830. (Turkish, dai, uncle.) Dictator. A military autocrat, appointed by the Romans in times of danger. Damnu (lord). Roumania.
Emperor. (See Imperator.) Empress. A female emperor, or the wife of an emperor. Esin'qæ (q.v.). Kings of Kent.
Hospodar. Moldavia and Wallachia; now borne by the Emperor of Russia. Imperator (ruler or commander). The Latin form of emperor.
Inca. Ancient Peru.
Judge. Ancient Jews (Shophet). Kaiser (same as Caesar, q.v.). The German Emperor. Khan (chieftain) or Ghengis-Khan. Tartary. In Persia, the governor of a province is called a Khan. Khedive (q.v.). Modern Egypt.
King or Queen. Great Britain, etc. (Anglo-Saxon cyn, the people or nation, and —ing (a patronymic) = the man of, the choice of, etc.)
Lama or Dalai Lama (great mother-of-souls). Thibet. Melech (king). Ancient Jews.
Mogul' or Great Mogul. Mongolia. Nejus or Nejushee (lord protector). Abyssiuia. Nizam' (ruler). Hyderabad.
Padishah (fatherly king). The Sultan's title.
Pendragon (chief of the dragons, or “summus rex”). A dictator, created by the ancient Celts in times of danger.
Pharaoh (light of the world). Ancient Egypt. President. Republics of America, France, etc. Ptolemy (proper name adopted). Egypt after the death of Alexander. Queen. (Anglo-Saxon, cwen; Creek, gune, a woman.)
Rajah or Maha-rajah (great king). Hindustan. Rex (ruler). A Latin word equivalent to our king. Scherif (lord) Mecca and Medina.
Shah (protector). Persia. Sheik (patriarch). Arabia. Shophetim. So the Jewish “Judges” were styled. Sophi (holy). A title of the Shah of Persia. Stadtholder (city-holder). Formerly chief magistrate of Holland. Suffetes (dictators). Ancient Carthage.
Sultan or Soldan (ruler). Turkey. Vayvode or Waywode (2 syl.) of Transylvania, Moldavia, and Wallachia. Vladika (ruler). Montenegro.
Also, Aga, amcer or emir, archduke, count, doge, duke, effendi, elector, exarch, herzog (= duke), imaum,
infanta, landamman, landgrave, mandarin, margrave, or margravine, nabob, pacha or bashaw, prince, sachem, satrap, seigneur or grandseigneur, sirdar, subahdar, suzerain, tetrarch, viceroy, etc., in some cases are chief independent rulers, in some cases dependent rulers or governors subject to an over-lord, and in other simply titles of honour without separate dominion.
Source: Dictionary of Phrase and Fable, E. Cobham Brewer, 1894