More Facts & Figures
National name: Rzeczpospolita Polska
Language: Polish (official) 97.8%, other and unspecified 2.2% (2002 census)
Ethnicity/race: Polish 96.7%, German 0.4%, Belorussian 0.1% Ukrainian 0.1%, other 2.7% (2002)
Religions: Roman Catholic 89.8% (about 75% practicing), Eastern Orthodox 1.3%, Protestant 0.3%, other 0.3%, unspecified 8.3% (2002)
Literacy rate: 99.8% (2003 est.)
Economic summary: GDP/PPP $765.6 billion (2011 est.); per capita $20,100. Real growth rate: 3.8%. Inflation: 4%. Unemployment:12.4%. Arable land: 40.25% (2005). Agriculture: potatoes, fruits, vegetables, wheat; poultry, eggs, pork, dairy. Labor force: 17.85 million; agriculture 17.4%, industry 29.2%, services 53.4% (2010). Industries: machine building, iron and steel, coal mining, chemicals, shipbuilding, food processing, glass, beverages, textiles. Natural resources: coal, sulfur, copper, natural gas, silver, lead, salt, amber, arable land. Exports: $197.1 billion (2011 est.): machinery and transport equipment 37.8%, intermediate manufactured goods 23.7%, miscellaneous manufactured goods 17.1%, food and live animals 7.6% (2003). Imports: $217.9 billion (2011 est.): machinery and transport equipment 38%, intermediate manufactured goods 21%, chemicals 14.8%, minerals, fuels, lubricants, and related materials 9.1% (2003). Major trading partners: Germany, France, UK, Italy, Czech Republic, Netherlands, Russia, China, France (2010).
Communications: Telephones: 9.451 million (2010); mobile cellular: 46 million (2010). Broadcast media: state-run public television operates 2 national channels supplemented by 16 regional channels and several niche channels; privately-owned entities operate several national TV broadcast networks and a number of special interest channels; large number of privately-owned channels broadcasting locally; roughly half of all households are linked to either satellite or cable TV systems providing access to foreign television networks; state-run public radio operates 5 national networks and 17 regional radio stations; 2 privately-owned national radio networks, several commercial stations broadcasting to multiple cities, and a large number of privately-owned local radio stations (2007). Internet Service Providers (ISPs):12.93 million (2010). Internet users:22.452 million (2009).
Transportation: Railways: total: 19,428 km (2010). Highways: total: 423,997 km; paved: 295,356 km (includes 765 km of expressways); unpaved: 128,641 km (2008). Waterways: 3,997 km navigable rivers and canals (2009). Ports and terminals: Gdansk, Gdynia, Swinoujscie, Szczecin. Airports:125 (2012).
International disputes: As a member state that forms part of the EU's external border, Poland has implemented the strict Schengen border rules to restrict illegal immigration and trade along its eastern borders with Belarus and Ukraine.