Nobel Prize for Economic Science
Find all the winners of the Nobel Prize for Economic Science, from 1969 to the present. For years not listed, no award was made.
- Ragnar Frisch (Norway) and Jan Tinbergen (Netherlands), for work in econometrics (application of mathematics and statistical methods to economic theories and problems)
- Paul A. Samuelson (U.S.), for efforts to raise the level of scientific analysis in economic theory
- Simon Kuznets (U.S.), for developing concept of using a country's gross national product to determine its economic growth
- Kenneth J. Arrow (U.S.) and Sir John R. Hicks (U.K.), for theories that help to assess business risk and government economic and welfare policies
- Wassily Leontief (U.S.), for devising the input-output technique to determine how different sectors of an economy interact
- Gunnar Myrdal (Sweden) and Friedrich A. von Hayek (U.K.), for pioneering analysis of the interdependence of economic, social, and institutional phenomena
- Leonid V. Kantorovich (U.S.S.R.) and Tjalling C. Koopmans (U.S.), for work on the theory of optimum allocation of resources
- Milton Friedman (U.S.), for work in consumption analysis and monetary history and theory, and for demonstration of complexity of stabilization policy
- Bertil Ohlin (Sweden) and James E. Meade (U.K.), for contributions to theory of international trade and international capital movements
- Herbert A. Simon (U.S.), for research into the decision-making process within economic organizations
- Sir Arthur Lewis (U.K.) and Theodore Schultz (U.S.), for work on economic problems of developing nations
- Lawrence R. Klein (U.S.), for developing models for forecasting economic trends and shaping policies to deal with them
- James Tobin (U.S.), for analyses of financial markets and their influence on spending and saving by families and businesses
- George J. Stigler (U.S.), for work on government regulation in the economy and the functioning of industry
- Gerard Debreu (U.S.), in recognition of his work on the basic economic problem of how prices operate to balance what producers supply with what buyers want
- Sir Richard Stone (U.K.), for his work to develop the systems widely used to measure the performance of national economics
- Franco Modigliani (U.S.), for his pioneering work in analyzing the behavior of household savers and the functioning of financial markets
- James M. Buchanan (U.S.), for his development of new methods for analyzing economic and political decision-making
- Robert M. Solow (U.S.), for seminal contributions to the theory of economic growth
- Maurice Allais (France), for his pioneering development of theories to better understand market behavior and the efficient use of resources
- Trygve Haavelmo (Norway), for his pioneering work in methods for testing economic theories
- Harry M. Markowitz, William F. Sharpe, and Merton H. Miller (all U.S.), whose work provided new tools for weighing the risks and rewards of different investments and for valuing corporate stocks and bonds
- Ronald Coase (U.S.), for his pioneering work in how property rights and the cost of doing business affect the economy
- Gary S. Becker (U.S.), for “having extended the domain of economic theory to aspects of human behavior which had previously been dealt with—if at all—by other social science disciplines”
- Robert W. Fogel and Douglass C. North (both U.S.), for their work in economic history
- John F. Nash, John C. Harsanyi (both U.S.), and Reinhard Selten (Germany), for their pioneering work in game theory
- Robert E. Lucas, Jr. (U.S.), for having had the greatest influence on macroeconomic research since 1970
- James A. Mirrlees (U.K.) and William Vickrey (U.S.), for “their fundamental contributions to the economic theory of incentives”
- Robert C. Merton and Myron S. Scholes (both U.S.), for developing a formula that determines the value of stock options and other derivatives
- Amartya Sen (India), for his contributions to welfare economics
- Robert A. Mundel (U.S.), for his work on monetary dynamics and optimum currency areas
- James J. Heckman and Daniel L. McFadden (both U.S.), for developing methods used in statistical analysis of individual and household behavior
- George A. Akerlof, A. Michael Spence, and Joseph E. Stiglitz (all U.S.), for market analyses with asymmetric information.
- Daniel Kahneman (U.S.) for having integrated insights from psychological research into economic science and Vernon L. Smith (U.S.) for having established laboratory experiments as a tool in empirical economic analysis.
- Robert F. Engle (U.S.) and Clive W. J. Granger (UK), for developing statistical tools to improve analysis of stock prices and other data.
- Finn E. Kydland (Norway) and Edward C. Prescott (U.S.) “for their contributions to dynamic macroeconomics: the time consistency of economic policy and the driving forces behind business cycles.”
- Robert J. Aumann and Thomas C. Schelling (both U.S.)
- Edmund S. Phelps (U.S.) for “his analysis of intertemporal tradeoffs in macroeconomic policy”
- Leonid Hurwicz (U.S.), Eric S. Maskin (U.S.), and Roger B. Myerson (U.S.) "for having laid the foundations of mechanism design theory"
- Paul Krugman (U.S.) for "his analysis of trade patterns and location of economic activity"
- Elinor Ostrom (U.S.) for "her analysis of economic governance, especially the commons" and Oliver E. Williamson (U.S.) for "his analysis of economic governance, especially the boundaries of the firm"
- Peter Diamond (U.S.), Dale T. Mortensen (U.S.), and Christopher A. Pissarides (UK) for "their analysis of markets with search frictions"
- Thomas J. Sargent (U.S.) and Christopher A. Sims for "their empirical research on cause and effect in the macroeconomy"
- Jointly to Alvin E. Roth and Lloyd S. Shapley (both U.S.) for "the theory of stable allocations and the practice of market design"
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