IntroductionTurkmenistan (tōrkmyĕˌnyĭstänˈ) [key], republic (2005 est. pop. 4,952,000), 188,455 sq mi (488,100 sq km), central Asia. It borders on Afghanistan and Iran in the south, Uzbekistan in the east and northeast, Kazakhstan in the northwest, and the Caspian Sea in the west. Ashgabat (Ashkhabad) is its capital and largest city.
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