A standard historian of Spain is R. Altamira y Crevea. See also R. B. Merriman, The Rise of Spanish Empire (4 vol., 1918–36; repr. 1962); A. Castro, The Spaniards: An Introduction to Their History (tr. 1971, repr. 1980); R. Menéndez Pidal, The Cid and His Spain (tr. 1934, repr. 1971); G. Jackson, comp., The Spanish Civil War (1972); R. Collins, Early Medieval Spain (1987); R. Clark and M. Haltzel, ed., Spain in the 1980s (1987); P. Preston, The Triumph of Democracy in Spain (1988); S. M. Ellwood, Spanish Fascism in the Franco Era (1988); P. J. Donaghy and M. T. Newton, Spain (1988); J. H. Elliott, Spain and Its World, 1500–1700 (1989); L. A. Benton, Invisible Factories: The Informal Economy and Spanish Industrial Development (1990); H. Kamen, Empire: How Spain Became a World Power, 1492–1763 (2003); H. Thomas, Rivers of Gold: The Rise of the Spanish Empire (2004) and The Golden Empire: Spain, Charles V, and the Creation of America (2011); W. Maltby, The Rise and Fall of the Spanish Empire (2009); M Carr, Blood and Faith: The Purging of Muslim Spain (2010).
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