Gauteng, province (2011 pop. 12,272,263), 7,019 sq mi (18,178 sq km), NE South Africa. In 1994, under South Africa's post-apartheid constitution, Gauteng was created from the southern portion of the former province of Transvaal. It is bounded by Limpopo (N), Mpumalanga (E), the Vaal River and Free State (S), and by North West (W). Gauteng was initially called Pretoria-Witwatersrand-Vereeniging.
Johannesburg is the capital and largest city. Other leading cities include Pretoria, Brakpan, Germiston, Krugersdorp, Springs, and Vereeniging. The province is situated in the highveld, at an altitude of 3,000 to 6,000 ft (910–1,830 m), giving it a relatively mild climate in spite of its subtropical location. The Witwatersrand range runs west to east through the province.
Although the smallest of South Africa's nine provinces, Gauteng is the most populous. It is the financial services capital of the country and has a large manufacturing sector that produces iron and steel, fabricated metal products, processed food, machinery, appliances, vehicle parts, and chemicals. Mining, chiefly gold and diamonds, is important, although it has been eclipsed in recent years by manufacturing and financial services. The majority of the country's research and development also takes place in Gauteng. Agriculture focuses on raising fruits, vegetables, poultry, and eggs for the province's mainly urban population. The landlocked province has good road and rail connections. The principal languages are Zulu, Afrikaans, Sesotho, and English.
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright © 2012, Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.
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