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See D. W. Sciama, Modern Cosmology and the Dark Matter Problem (1993); J. D. Barrow, The Origin of the Universe (1994); P. Coles and F. Lucchin, Cosmology: The Origin and Evolution of Cosmic Structure (1995); M. S. Longair, Our Evolving Universe (1996); B. Green, The Elegant Universe: Superstrings, Hidden Dimensions, and the Quest for the Ultimate Theory (2000); S. Hawking, The Universe in a Nutshell (2001); R. P. Kirshner, The Extravagant Universe: Exploding Stars, Dark Energy, and Accelerating Cosmos (2002); S. Singh, Big Bang: The Origin of the Universe (2005).

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright © 2012, Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.

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