Motion Picture Cameras
The motion picture camera comes in a variety of sizes, from 8 mm to 35 mm and 75 mm. Motion picture film comes in spools or cartridges. The spool type, employed mostly in 16- and 35-mm camera systems, must be threaded through the camera and attached to the take-up spool by hand, whereas a film cartridge—available for the super-8-mm systems—avoids this procedure. In all modern movie cameras the film is driven by a tiny electric motor that is powered by batteries.
Motion picture cameras all operate on the same basic principles. Exposures are usually made at a rate of 18 or 24 frames per second (fps), which means that as the film goes through the camera it stops for a very brief moment to expose each frame. This is accomplished in nearly all movie cameras by a device called a rotary shutter—basically a half-circle of metal that spins, alternately opening and closing an aperture, behind which is located the film. To make the film travel along its path and hold still for the exposure of each frame, a device called a claw is required. This is another small piece of metal that alternately pops into the sprocket holes or perforations in the film, pulls the film down, retracts to release the film while the frame is being exposed, and finally returns to the top of the channel in which it moves to grasp the next frame. The movement of the shutter and claw are synchronized, so that the shutter is closed while the claw is pulling the frame downward and open for the instant that the frame is motionless in its own channel or gate.
Lenses for movie cameras also come in "normal," wide-angle, and long focal lengths. Some older cameras had a turret on which were mounted all three lens types. The desired lens could be fixed into position by simply rotating the turret. Many super-8 cameras come with a single zoom lens, incorporating a number of focal lengths that are controlled by moving a certain group of lens elements toward or away from the film. Most of these cameras have an automatic exposure device that regulates the f -stop according to the reading made by a built-in electric eye. Movie camera lenses are focused in the same way as are still camera lenses. For viewing purposes, a super-8 uses a beam splitter—a partially silvered reflector that diverts a small percentage of the light to a ground-glass viewfinder while allowing most of the light to reach the film. Other cameras have a mirror-shutter system that transmits all the light, at intervals, alternately to film and viewfinder. Many of the super-8 cameras also contain some kind of rangefinder, built into the focusing screen, for precise focusing.
See also motion picture photography.
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