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anhydride

anhydride (ănhĪˈdrĪd, –drĭd) [key] [Gr., = without water], chemical compound formed by removing water, H2O, from another compound; the anhydride can also react with water to form the original compound. An acid anhydride reacts with water to form an acid; e.g., sulfur trioxide, SO3, reacts with water to form sulfuric acid, H2SO4. A basic anhydride reacts with water to form a base; e.g., calcium oxide, CaO, reacts with water to form calcium hydroxide, Ca(OH)2. Anhydrides of organic acids have many uses. They react with alcohols to form esters; e.g., acetic anhydride, (CH3CO)2O, reacts with ethanol, C2H5OH, to form ethyl acetate, CH3COOC2H5, a useful solvent. They also react with ammonia and primary or secondary amines to form amides. Other important acid anhydrides include maleic anhydride and phthalic anhydride.

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright © 2012, Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.

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