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Robert II

Robert II, 1316–90, king of Scotland (1371–90), nephew and successor of David II. He was the first sovereign of the house of Stuart, or Stewart (see Stuart, family), which eventually succeeded to the English as well as the Scottish throne. The son of Walter the Steward and Marjory, daughter of Robert I, he was regent three times (1333–35, 1338–41, and 1346–58) for David II during the latter's exile and captivity. He thus led the resistance to Edward de Baliol and Edward III of England. Robert rebelled against his uncle in 1363 when David recognized Edward III as his successor. On David's death (1371), however, he succeeded peacefully to the throne, in accordance with the succession law adopted in 1318. Robert's first marriage took place after the birth of several of his sons, but their succession to the throne was legitimized by an act of Parliament in 1373. Through most of his reign the government was dominated by two of these sons—John, earl of Carrick (later Robert III) and Robert Stuart, later 1st duke of Albany. The Scots in alliance with France fought off several English invasions; they invaded England without assistance in 1388 and won a great victory at Otterburn. Robert was succeeded by Robert III.

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright © 2012, Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.

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