See his works (7 vol., 1896) and his papers (ed. by J. Hopkins et al., 11 vol., 1959–92); biographies by C. Schurz (1887, repr. 1968), G. Van Deusen (1937), B. Mayo (1937, repr. 1966), and D. S. and J. T. Heidler (2010); studies by C. Eaton (1957), R. V. Remini (2010), and F. M. Bordewich (2012).
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. Copyright © 2012, Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.
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