See L. M. Duchesne, The Beginnings of the Temporal Sovereignty of the Popes, A.D. 754–1073 (1898, tr. 1908); D. P. Waley, The Papal State under Martin V (1958); P. Partner, The Lands of St. Peter: The Papal State in the Middle Ages and the Early Renaissance (1972). See also bibliography under papacy.
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