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Shepherd Kings

or Hyksos. Some 2,000 years B.C. a tribe of Arabian shepherds established themselves in Lower Egypt, and were governed by their own chiefs. Manetho says “they reigned 511 years;” Eratosthenes says 470 years; Africanus, 284 years; Eusebius, 103 years. Some say they extended over five dynasties, some over three, some limit their sway to one; some give the name of only one monarch, some of four, and others of six. Bunsen places them B.C. 1639; Lepsius, B.C. 1842; others, 1900 or 2000. If there ever were such kings, they were driven into Syria by the rulers of Upper Egypt. (Hyk, ruler; shos, shepherd.)

Source: Dictionary of Phrase and Fable, E. Cobham Brewer, 1894
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