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Scotland

St. Andrew is the patron saint of this country, and tradition says that the remains of the apostle were brought by Regulus, a Greek monk, to the eastern coast of Fife in 368. (See Rule, St.)

Scotland a fief of England.
Edward I. founded his claim to the lordship of Scotland on these four grounds:

(1) the ancient chroniclers, who state that Scotch kings had occasionally paid homage to the English sovereigns from time immemorial. Extracts are given from St. Alban, Marianus Scotus, Ralph of Diceto, Roger of Hoveden, and William of Malmesbury. (2) From charters of Scotch kings: as those of Edgar, son of Malcolm, William, and his son Alexander II. (3) From papal rescripts: as those of Honorius III., Gregory IX., and Clement IV. (4) By an extract from The Life and Miracles of St. John of Beverley. The tenor of this extract is quite suited to this Dictionary of Fable: In the reign of Adelstan the Scots invaded England and committed great devastation. Adelstan went to drive them back, and on reaching the Tyne, found that the Scotch had retreated. At midnight St. John of Beverley appeared to him, and bade him cross the river at daybreak, for he “should discomfit the foe.” Adelstan obeyed the vision, and reduced the whole kingdom to subjection. On reaching Dunbar on his return march, he prayed that some sign might be vouchsafed to him to satisfy all ages that “God, by the intercession of St. John, had given him the kingdom of Scotland.” Then struck he with his sword the baseltic rocks near the coast, and the blade sank into the solid flint “as if it had been butter,” cleaving it asunder for “an ell or more,” and the cleft remains even to the present hour. Without doubt there is a fissure in the basalt, and how could it have come there except in the way recorded above? And how could a sword cut three feet deep into a hard rock without miraculous aid? And what could such a miracle have been vouchsafed for, except to show that Adelstan was rightful lord of Scotland? And if Adelstan was lord, of course Edward should be so likewise. Q. E. D. (Rymer: Foedera, vol. i. pt. ii. p. 771.)

Source: Dictionary of Phrase and Fable, E. Cobham Brewer, 1894
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