Abgarus (The Grand). So the kings of Edessa were styled. Abimelech (my father the king). The chief ruler of the ancient Philistines. Agag (lord). The chief ruler of the Amalekites (4 syl.).
(very-great chieftain). Hindustan.
The chief ruler of the ancient Greek kingdoms. Anaxandron was the over-king. Archon (The). The chief of the nine
magistrates of Athens. The next in rank was called Basileus (3
syl.); and the third Polemarch (3 syl.), or Field-Marshal.
or Assyr (blessed one). The chief ruler of ancient Assyria. Attabeg (father prince). Persia, 1118.
The title of the reigning Emperor of Rome, when the heir
presumptive was styled “Caesar.” (See Augustus.)
(self-potentate). One whose power is absolute; Russia. Beglerbeg. (See Bey.)
(son of the sun or Hadad). The chief ruler of ancient
Damascus. Bey of Tunis. In Turkey, a bey is the governor of a
banner, and the chief over the seven banners is the beglar-bey.
or Brenhin (war-chief) of the ancient Gauls. A dictator
appointed by the Druids in times of danger. Bretwalda (wielder
of Britain). Chief king of the heptarchy.
Caesar Proper name adopted by the Roman emperors. (See
Kaiser.) Calif (successor). Successors of Mahomet; now the Grand
Signior of Turkey, and Sophi of Persia. Candace. Proper name
adopted by the queens of Ethiopia.
(Ca-zeek'). American Indians; native princes of the ancient
Peruvians, Cubans, Mexicans, etc. Chagan. The chief of the
The despot of ancient Servia.
Cyrus (mighty). Ancient Persia. (See Cyrus.) Czar (Caesar). Russia. Assumed by Ivan III., who married a princess of the
Byzantine line, in 1472. He also introduced the double-headed black
eagle of Byzantium as the national symbol.
Latin form of Darawesh (king). Ancient Persia. Dey. In Algiers, before it was annexed to France in 1830. (Turkish, dai, uncle.) Dictator. A military autocrat, appointed by the Romans
in times of danger. Damnu (lord). Roumania.
(See Imperator.) Empress. A female emperor, or the
wife of an emperor. Esin'qæ (q.v.). Kings of Kent.
Moldavia and Wallachia; now borne by the Emperor of Russia. Imperator (ruler or commander). The Latin form of emperor.
Ancient Jews (Shophet). Kaiser (same as Caesar, q.v.). The German Emperor. Khan (chieftain) or Ghengis-Khan. Tartary. In Persia, the governor of a province is
called a Khan. Khedive (q.v.). Modern Egypt.
or Queen. Great Britain, etc. (Anglo-Saxon cyn, the
people or nation, and —ing (a patronymic) = the man of, the
choice of, etc.)
or Dalai Lama (great mother-of-souls). Thibet. Melech (king). Ancient Jews.
or Great Mogul. Mongolia. Nejus or Nejushee
(lord protector). Abyssiuia. Nizam' (ruler). Hyderabad.
(fatherly king). The Sultan's title.
(chief of the dragons, or “summus rex”). A dictator, created
by the ancient Celts in times of danger.
(light of the world). Ancient Egypt. President. Republics of
America, France, etc. Ptolemy (proper name adopted). Egypt after
the death of Alexander. Queen. (Anglo-Saxon, cwen; Creek, gune, a woman.)
or Maha-rajah (great king). Hindustan. Rex (ruler).
A Latin word equivalent to our king. Scherif (lord) Mecca and
(protector). Persia. Sheik (patriarch). Arabia.
Shophetim. So the Jewish “Judges” were styled. Sophi (holy).
A title of the Shah of Persia. Stadtholder (city-holder).
Formerly chief magistrate of Holland. Suffetes (dictators).
or Soldan (ruler). Turkey. Vayvode or Waywode (2 syl.) of Transylvania, Moldavia, and Wallachia. Vladika (ruler). Montenegro.
Also, Aga, amcer or emir, archduke, count, doge, duke,
effendi, elector, exarch, herzog (= duke), imaum,
infanta, landamman, landgrave, mandarin, margrave, or margravine,
nabob, pacha or bashaw, prince, sachem, satrap, seigneur or grandseigneur, sirdar, subahdar, suzerain, tetrarch, viceroy, etc.,
in some cases are chief independent rulers, in some cases dependent
rulers or governors subject to an over-lord, and in other simply
titles of honour without separate dominion.
Source: Dictionary of Phrase and Fable, E. Cobham Brewer, 1894