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India

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  1. India Main Page
  2. British Exert Influence, Suppress Indians
  3. Gandhi Leads Challenge of British Rule
  4. Independence Soured by Partition of India and Pakistan
  5. India Supports Independence Movement That Leads to the Creation of Bangladesh
  6. Indira Gandhi's Leadership Is Challenged
  7. Indira and Rajiv Gandhi Are Gunned Down
  8. India and Pakistan Test Nuclear Weapons
  9. Kashmir Continues to Test Relationship Between India and Pakistan
  10. Electoral Upset Brings Congress Party to Power
  11. India and the U.S. Reach Deal on Nuclear Technology
  12. Terrorists Attack Landmarks in Mumbai
  13. India Tests a Long-Range Ballistic Missile
  14. Gang Rape Case Ignites National Protests
  15. Tensions Rise at Border with Pakistan
  16. Supreme Court Bans Gay Sex
  17. 2014 Election Is the World's Largest
Gandhi Leads Challenge of British Rule

After World War I, in which the Indian states sent more than 6 million troops to fight beside the Allies, Indian nationalist unrest rose to new heights under the leadership of a Hindu lawyer, Mohandas K. Gandhi, called Mahatma Gandhi. His philosophy of civil disobedience called for nonviolent noncooperation against British authority. He soon became the leading spirit of the Indian National Congress Party, which was the spearhead of revolt. In 1919, the British gave added responsibility to Indian officials, and in 1935, India was given a federal form of government and a measure of self-rule.

In 1942, with the Japanese pressing hard on the eastern borders of India, the British War Cabinet tried and failed to reach a political settlement with nationalist leaders. The Congress Party took the position that the British must quit India. Fearing mass civil disobedience, the government of India carried out widespread arrests of Congress Party leaders, including Gandhi.

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