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Germany

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Facts & Figures

President: Joachim Gauck (2012)

Chancellor: Angela Merkel (2005)

Land area: 135,236 sq mi (350,261 sq km); total area: 137,846 sq mi (357,021 sq km)

Population (2012 est.): 81,305,856 (growth rate: –0.2%); birth rate: 8.33/1000; infant mortality rate: 3.51/1000; life expectancy: 80.19

Capital and largest city (2009 est.): Berlin (capital since Oct. 3, 1990), 3.438

Other large cities: Hamburg, 1.786 million; Munich, 1.349; Cologne, 1.001 million

Monetary unit: Euro (formerly Deutsche mark)

More Facts & Figures

Flag of Germany
Index
  1. Germany Main Page
  2. The Rise of Bismarck and the Birth of the Second German Reich
  3. Adolf Hitler and WWII
  4. Post-War Germany Is Disarmed, Demilitarized, and Divided
  5. Federal Republic of Germany
  6. Democratic Republic of Germany
  7. Berlin Wall Falls, Germany Reunifies
  8. Centrist Gerhard Schroder Elected Chancellor
  9. Germany's Unemployment Rate Reaches 12%
  10. Germany Takes Major Role in Managing Euro Debt Crisis
  11. New Island Emerges Off the Coast
  12. Merkel Elected to a Third Term

Geography

Located in central Europe, Germany is made up of the North German Plain, the Central German Uplands (Mittelgebirge), and the Southern German Highlands. The Bavarian plateau in the southwest averages 1,600 ft (488 m) above sea level, but it reaches 9,721 ft (2,962 m) in the Zugspitze Mountains, the highest point in the country. Germany's major rivers are the Danube, the Elbe, the Oder, the Weser, and the Rhine. Germany is about the size of Montana.

Government

Federal republic.

History

The Celts are believed to have been the first inhabitants of Germany. They were followed by German tribes at the end of the 2nd century B.C. German invasions destroyed the declining Roman Empire in the 4th and 5th centuries A.D. One of the tribes, the Franks, attained supremacy in western Europe under Charlemagne, who was crowned Holy Roman Emperor in 800. By the Treaty of Verdun (843), Charlemagne's lands east of the Rhine were ceded to the German Prince Louis. Additional territory acquired by the Treaty of Mersen (870) gave Germany approximately the area it maintained throughout the Middle Ages. For several centuries after Otto the Great was crowned king in 936, German rulers were also usually heads of the Holy Roman Empire.

By the 14th century, the Holy Roman Empire was little more than a loose federation of the German princes who elected the Holy Roman Emperor. In 1438, Albert of Hapsburg became emperor, and for the next several centuries the Hapsburg line ruled the Holy Roman Empire until its decline in 1806. Relations between state and church were changed by the Reformation, which began with Martin Luther's 95 theses, and came to a head in 1547, when Charles V scattered the forces of the Protestant League at Mühlberg. The Counter-Reformation followed. A dispute over the succession to the Bohemian throne brought on the Thirty Years' War (1618–1648), which devastated Germany and left the empire divided into hundreds of small principalities virtually independent of the emperor.

Next: The Rise of Bismarck and the Birth of the Second German Reich
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