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China

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Facts & Figures

President: Xi Jinping (2013)

Prime Minister: Wen Jiabao (2003)

Land area: 3,600,927 sq mi (9,326,411 sq km); total area: 3,705,407 sq mi (9,596,960 sq km)1

Population (2011 est.): 1,336,718,015 (growth rate: 0.493%); birth rate: 12.29/1000; infant mortality rate: 16.06/1000; life expectancy: 74.68

Capital (2009 est.): Beijing, 12.214 million

Largest cities: Shanghai, 16.575 million; Chungking (Chongquing) 9.401 million; Shenzhen 9.005 million; Guangzhou 8.884 million (2009)

Monetary unit: Yuan/Renminbi

More Facts & Figures

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Index
  1. China Main Page
  2. War Losses Cause China to Sign Away Sovereignty
  3. People's Republic of China Is Established
  4. China Is Condemned for Poor Treatment of Tibetans
  5. President Nixon's Visit to China Establishes New Relations
  6. Student Demonstrators Are Killed at Tiananmen Square
  7. China Becomes an Economic Power, but Continues to Suppress Personal Liberties
  8. Natural Disasters Ravage China
  9. China Hosts a Successful Olympics
  10. Space Exploration, Government Reforms, and Military Crackdowns
  11. Tension Increases with Asian Neighbors Over Islands in 2012
  12. Transfer of Power
  13. Chinese Hackers Attack the New York Times
  14. Bo Xilai Sentenced to Life in Prison
  15. China Declares New Air Defense Zone

Geography

The greater part of the country is mountainous. Its principal ranges are the Tien Shan, the Kunlun chain, and the Trans-Himalaya. In the southwest is Tibet, which China annexed in 1950. The Gobi Desert lies to the north. China proper consists of three great river systems: the Yellow River (Huang He), 2,109 mi (5,464 km) long; the Yangtze River (Chang Jiang), the third-longest river in the world at 2,432 mi (6,300 km); and the Pearl River (Zhu Jiang), 848 mi (2,197 km) long.

Government

Communist state.

History

The earliest recorded human settlements in what is today called China were discovered in the Huang He basin and date from about 5000 B.C. During the Shang dynasty (1500–1000 B.C. ), the precursor of modern China's ideographic writing system developed, allowing the emerging feudal states of the era to achieve an advanced stage of civilization, rivaling in sophistication any society found at the time in Europe, the Middle East, or the Americas. It was following this initial flourishing of civilization, in a period known as the Chou dynasty (1122–249 B.C. ), that Lao-tse, Confucius, Mo Ti, and Mencius laid the foundation of Chinese philosophical thought.

The feudal states, often at war with one another, were first united under Emperor Ch'in Shih Huang Ti, during whose reign (246–210 B.C. ) work was begun on the Great Wall of China, a monumental bulwark against invasion from the West. Although the Great Wall symbolized China's desire to protect itself from the outside world, under the Han dynasty (206 B.C.–A.D. 220), the civilization conducted extensive commercial trading with the West.

In the T'ang dynasty (618–907)—often called the golden age of Chinese history—painting, sculpture, and poetry flourished, and woodblock printing, which enabled the mass production of books, made its earliest known appearance. The Mings, last of the native rulers (1368–1644), overthrew the Mongol, or Yuan, dynasty (1271–1368) established by Kublai Khan. The Mings in turn were overthrown in 1644 by invaders from the north, the Manchus.

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