prime minister of Pakistan, took “concrete steps” to end the bloodbath in Kashmir and ordered the mujahedeen, or Muslim holy warriors, to withdraw from the Indian-controlled portion of the territory. Since India and Pakistan were formed in 1947, when British India was partitioned into two separate countries, the mujahedeen and the Indian military have fought two other wars over Kashmir. Pakistan and many of Kashmir's Muslim inhabitants never accepted the division, which leaves India in control of about two thirds of the territory.
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