Facts & Figures
Sovereign: King Salman (2015)
Land area: 829,995 sq mi (2,149,690 sq km)
Population (2014 est.): 27,345,986 (growth rate: 1.49%); birth rate: 18.78/1000; infant mortality rate: 14.58/1000; life expectancy: 74.82; density per sq mi: 31
Capital and largest city (2011 est.): Riyadh, 5.451 million
Other large cities: Jeddah, 3.578 millioin; Makkah (Mecca), 1.591 million
Monetary unit: Riyal
National name: Al-Mamlaka al-'Arabiya as-Sa'udiya
Ethnicity/race: Arab 90%, Afro-Asian 10%
Religion: Muslim (official; citizens are 85-90% Sunni and 10-15% Shia), other (includes Eastern Orthodox, Protestant, Roman Catholic, Jewish, Hindu, Buddhist, and Sikh) (2012 est.)
Literacy rate: 87.2% (2011 est.)
Economic summary: GDP/PPP (2013 est.): $927.8 billion; per capita $31,300. Real growth rate: 3.6%. Inflation: 3.7%. Unemployment: 10.5% male only (local bank estimate; some estimates range as high as 25%) (2013 est.). Arable land: 1.45%. Agriculture: wheat, barley, tomatoes, melons, dates, citrus; mutton, chickens, eggs, milk. Labor force: 8.412 million; note: about 80% of the labor force is non-national (2013); agriculture 6.7%, industry 21.4%, services 71.9% (2005 est.). Industries: crude oil production, petroleum refining, basic petrochemicals; ammonia, industrial gases, sodium hydroxide (caustic soda), cement, fertilizer, plastics; metals, commercial ship repair, commercial aircraft repair, construction. Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, gold, copper. Exports: $376.3 billion (2013 est.): petroleum and petroleum products 90%. Imports: $147 billion (2013 est.): machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, chemicals, motor vehicles, textiles. Major trading partners: U.S., Japan, South Korea, China, Singapore, Germany, India (2012).
Communications: Telephones: main lines in use: 4.8 million (2012 est.); mobile cellular: 53 million (2012 est.). Radio broadcast stations: AM 43, FM 31, shortwave 2 (1998). Radios: 6.25 million (1997). Television broadcast stations: 117 (2007). Televisions: 5.1 million (1997). Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 145,941 (2012). Internet users: 9.774 million (2009).
Transportation: Railways: total: 1,378 km (2008). Highways: total: 221,372 km; paved: 47,529 km; unpaved: 173,843 km (2006). Ports and harbors: Ad Dammam, Al Jubayl, Jeddah, Yanbu al Bahr. Airports: 214 (2013).
International disputes:Saudi Arabia has reinforced its concrete-filled security barrier along sections of the now fully demarcated border with Yemen to stem illegal cross-border activities; Kuwait and Saudi Arabia continue discussions on a maritime boundary with Iran; Saudi Arabia claims Egyptian-administered islands of Tiran and Sanafir.