China | War Losses Cause China to Sign Away Sovereignty
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- War Losses Cause China to Sign Away Sovereignty
- People's Republic of China Is Established
- China Is Condemned for Poor Treatment of Tibetans
- President Nixon's Visit to China Establishes New Relations
- Student Demonstrators Are Killed at Tiananmen Square
- China Becomes an Economic Power, but Continues to Suppress Personal Liberties
- Natural Disasters Ravage China
- China Hosts a Successful Olympics
- Space Exploration, Government Reforms, and Military Crackdowns
- Tension Reignites with Asian Neighbors Over Islands
- Transfer of Power, Bo Xilai Sentenced to Life in Prison
- New Air Defense Zone Declared and Increased Tension with Vietnam
- Chinese Hackers Indicted by the United States
- China Signs Gas Accord with Russia, Faces Hong Kong Protests, Participates in South Sudan Mission
- China and U.S. Reach Landmark Agreement on Climate Change
- China, South Korea, and Japan Hold First Foreign Minister Talks in Three Years
- China Ends One-Child Policy, Meets with Taiwan for First Time in Sixty-Six years
War Losses Cause China to Sign Away Sovereignty
China remained largely isolated from the rest of the world's civilizations, closely restricting foreign activities. By the end of the 18th century only Canton (location of modern-day Hong Kong) and the Portuguese port of Macao were open to European merchants. But with the first Anglo-Chinese War in 1839–1842, a long period of instability and concessions to Western colonial powers began. Following the war, several ports were opened up for trading, and Hong Kong was ceded to Britain. Treaties signed after further hostilities (1856–1860) weakened Chinese sovereignty and gave foreigners immunity from Chinese jurisdiction. European powers took advantage of the disastrous Sino-Japanese War of 1894–1895 to gain further trading concessions from China. Peking's response, the Boxer Rebellion (1900), was suppressed by an international force.
The death of Empress Dowager Tzu Hsi in 1908 and the accession of the infant emperor Hsüan T'ung (Pu-Yi) were followed by a nationwide rebellion led by Dr. Sun Yat-sen, who overthrew the Manchus and became the first president of the Provisional Chinese Republic in 1911. Dr. Sun resigned in favor of Yuan Shih-k'ai, who suppressed the Republicans in a bid to consolidate his power. Yuan's death in June 1916 was followed by years of civil war between rival militarists and Dr. Sun's Republicans. Nationalist forces, led by General Chiang Kai-shek and with the advice of Communist experts, soon occupied most of China, setting up the Kuomintang regime in 1928. Internal strife continued, however, and Chiang eventually broke with the Communists.
On Sept. 18, 1931, Japan launched an invasion of Manchuria, capturing the province. Tokyo set up a puppet state dubbed Manchukuo and installed the last Manchu emperor, Henry Pu-Yi (Hsüan T'ung), as its nominal leader. Japanese troops moved to seize China's northern provinces in July 1937 but were resisted by Chiang, who had been able to use the Japanese invasion to unite most of China behind him. Within two years, however, Japan had seized most of the nation's eastern ports and railways. The Kuomintang government retreated first to Hankow and then to Chungking, while the Japanese set up a puppet government at Nanking, headed by Wang Jingwei.