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Woman suffrage by federal constitutional amendment, comp. by Carrie Chapman Catt

Appendix B

(In the table below, the 36 male suffrage states are grouped under classifications which represent, as far as can be represented in a table, the various degrees of difficulty met in the amending clauses of State Constitutions.)

  1. A.-Amendment passed by the Legislature or Constitutional Convention: Delaware: Amendments are not put to the referendum vote. They must pass two legislatures by a two-thirds majority each time. The Legislature sits biennially. A Constitutional Convention can also pass amendments without reference to the people.

  2. B.-Passed by majority one Legislature and majority vote of people on the referendum or by constitutional convention with referendum: Missouri-Biennial Legislature. Initiative petition also possible. South Dakota-Biennial. Constitutional Convention hard to call.

  3. C.-Large Legislative vote necessary: Florida, three fifths, biennial. Georgia, two-thirds, annual. Maine, two-thirds, biennial. Michigan, two-thirds, biennial. Initiative petition also possible. North Carolina, three-fifths, biennial. Ohio, three-fifths, biennial. Initiative petition also possible. West Virginia, two-thirds, biennial.

  4. D.-Same as C., but no, or infrequent Constitutional Conventions: Louisiana, two-thirds, biennial, no Constitutional Convention. Texas, two-thirds, biennial, no Constitutional Convention. Maryland, three-fifths, biennial, 20 years interval between Constitutional Conventions.

  5. E.-Difficult States: Alabama-Legislature: three-fifths vote of one Legislature (quadrennial). People: Majority of all votes cast at the election. Iowa-Legislature: Majority of two Legislatures (biennial). People: Majority of all voting for representatives. Minnesota-Legislature: Majority vote of one Legislature (biennial). People: Majority of votes at the election. New York-Legislature: Majority of two Legislatures (annual). People: Majority voting on amendment. Virginia-Legislature: Majority of two Legislatures (biennial). People: Majority of people voting on amendment. Oklahoma-Legislature: Majority vote of one Legislature (biennial). Initiative petition possible. People: Majority voting at election. North Dakota-Legislature: Majority of two Legislatures (biennial). Initiative petition possible. People: Majority voting on the amendment. No Constitutional Convention. South Carolina-Legislature: Two-thirds of two Legislatures (annual).-One before submission to people; the other after ratification by them. People: Majority voting for representatives. Wisconsin-Legislature: Majority of two Legislatures (biennial). People: Majority voting at the election.

  6. F.-Very Difficult States: Arkansas-Legislature: Majority vote of one Legislature (biennial). People: Majority of all voting at election. Only three amendments at once. No Constitutional Convention. Connecticut-Legislature: Majority vote of one Legislature; two-thirds vote a second Legislature (biennial). People: Majority votes of the people on the amendment. No Constitutional Convention. Kentucky-Legislature; three-fifths vote of one Legislature (biennial). People: Majority of people voting on the amendment. Not more than two amendments at once. Massachusetts-Legislature: Majority in Senate and two-thirds House in two Legislatures (annual). People: Majority voting on the amendment. No Constitutional Convention. New Jersey-Legislature: Majority of two Legislatures (annual). People: Majority voting on amendment. Same amendment can be submitted only once in five years. No Constitutional Convention. Mississippi-Legislature: Two-thirds vote of one Legislature; majority of a second, after the referendum vote (quadrennial). People: Majority voting at the election. No Constitutional Convention. Pennsylvania-Legislature: Majority of the two Legislatures (biennial). People: Majority of people voting at election. Same amendment can be submitted only once in five years. No Constitutional Convention. Rhode Island-Legislature: Majority of two Legislatures (annual). People: Three-fifths of all voting at election. No Constitutional Convention. Tennessee-Legislature: Majority vote in one Legislature, and a two-thirds vote in a second (biennial). People: Majority of all voting for representatives. Same amendment can be submitted only once in six years.

  7. G.-Most Difficult States: Vermont-Legislature: Majority in House and two-thirds in Senate in one Legislature; majority of both houses in a second (biennial). People: Majority voting on the amendment. No Constitutional Convention. Constitution can be amended only once in ten years. New Hampshire-Constitutional Convention alone can propose amendment. This convention is held once in seven years. People: Two-thirds majority vote on amendment. Illinois-Legislature: Two-thirds vote of one Legislature (biennial). People: Majority voting at the election. Only one amendment at a time. Same amendment only once in four years. Indiana-Legislature: Majority vote of two Legislatures (biennial). People: Majority of voters in state. While one amendment awaits action no other can be proposed. No Constitutional Convention. New Mexico-Legislature: Three-fourths vote of one Legislature (biennial). People: Three-fourths of those voting at election; two-thirds from each county.