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hedonism

(Encyclopedia)hedonism h?d?n?z??m [key] [Gr.,=pleasure], the doctrine that holds that pleasure is the highest good. Ancient hedonism expressed itself in two ways: the cruder form was that proposed by Aristip...

Aristippus

(Encyclopedia)Aristippus ?r?st?p?s [key], c.435?c.360 BC, Greek philosopher of Cyrene, first of the Cyrenaics. He held pleasure to be the highest good and virtue to be identical with the ability to enjoy. H...

Cyrenaics

(Encyclopedia)Cyrenaics s?r?n??ks, s?? [key], one of the minor schools of Greek philosophy, flourishing in the late 4th and early 3d cent. BC Cyrenaic philosophy taught that present individual pleasure is ...

ethics

(Encyclopedia)ethics, in philosophy, the study and evaluation of human conduct in the light of moral principles. Moral principles may be viewed either as the standard of conduct that individuals have constructed fo...

Omar Khayyam

(Encyclopedia)Omar Khayyam ?mr k?m [key], fl. 11th cent., Persian poet and mathematician, b. Nishapur. He was called Khayyam [tentmaker] probably because of his father's occupation. The details of his lif...

Epicurus

(Encyclopedia)Epicurus ?p?kyo?or?s [key], 341?270 BC, Greek philosopher, b. Samos; son of an Athenian colonist. He claimed to be self-taught, although tradition states that he was schooled in the systems of...

Santayana, George

(Encyclopedia)Santayana, George sntyn [key], 1863?1952, American philosopher and poet, b. Madrid, Spain. Life Santayana emigrated to the United States in 1872. A graduate of Harvard (1886), he taught in...

witchcraft

(Encyclopedia)witchcraft, a form of sorcery, or the magical manipulation of nature for self-aggrandizement, or for the benefit or harm of a client. This manipulation often involves the use of spirit-helpers, or fam...

Aristotle

(Encyclopedia)Aristotle ?r??st?t?l [key], 384?322 BC, Greek philosopher, b. Stagira. He is sometimes called the Stagirite. Life Aristotle's father, Nicomachus, was a noted physician. Aristotle studied (367...

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