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Sufism

(Encyclopedia) Sufism so͞o´fĭzəm [key], an umbrella term for the ascetic and mystical movements within Islam . While Sufism is said to have incorporated elements of Christian monasticism, gnosticis...

Farabi, al-

(Encyclopedia) Farabi, al- äl-färä´bē [key], d. 950, Islamic philosopher. He studied in Baghdad and later flourished in Aleppo as a sufi mystic (see Sufism ). He died in Damascus. Al-Farabi was th...

Adonis

(Encyclopedia) Adonis or Adunis, pen name of Ali Ahmad Said Esber, 1930–, Syrian poet and essayist, generally considered the Arab world's greatest living poet. He began writing poetry in the 1950s. A...

Ghazali, al-

(Encyclopedia) Ghazali, al- ăl-găzä´lē [key], 1058–1111, Islamic theologian, philosopher, and mystic. He was born at Tus in Khorasan, of Persian origin. He is considered the greatest theologian in Isl...

Yazidi

(Encyclopedia) Yazidi or Yezidi Middle Eastern religious community whose beliefs incorporate elements of Zoroastrianism , Sufism , Christianity, Manichaeism , and Judaism. Its members...

Sunni

(Encyclopedia) Sunni so͞o´nī [key] [Arab. Sunna,=tradition], from ahl al-sunnah wa-l-jamaa [Arab.,=the people of the custom of the Prophet and community], the largest division of Islam. Sunni Islam...

fakir

(Encyclopedia) fakir fäkēr´, fā´kər [key], [Arab.,=poverty], in Islam, usually an initiate in a Sufi order. The title fakir is borne with the understanding that poverty is the need to be in relation to...

Hallaj, Hussein ibn Mansur al-

(Encyclopedia) Hallaj, Hussein ibn Mansur al- ho͞osān´ ĭbn mänso͝or´ [key], 857–922, Arabic-speaking Persian Muslim mystic and poet popularly known among Muslims as the martyr of mystical love....

Sikhism (Religion)

(Encyclopedia) Sikhism sĭk´ĭzəm [key], religion centered in the Indian state of Punjab, numbering worldwide some 19 million. Some 300,000 Sikhs live in Britain, and there are smaller communities in North...