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Horkheimer, Max

(Encyclopedia) Horkheimer, Max hôrk´hī˝mər, hôr´kī˝–, 1895–1973, German philosopher and sociologist. As director (1930–58) of the Institute for Social Research in Frankfurt, he played an important…

Le Play, Pierre Guillaume Frédéric

(Encyclopedia) Le Play, Pierre Guillaume Frédéric pyĕr gēyōm´ frādārēk´ lə plā, 1806–82, French sociologist and economist. As an engineer he traveled through Europe, gathering data on the budgets of…

Dąbrowska, Marja

(Encyclopedia) Dąbrowska, Marja mär´yä dôNbrôf´skä, 1889–1965, Polish sociologist and novelist. Dąbrowska worked as a militant publicist to further social and economic reform. Her works of fiction,…

Le Bon, Gustave

(Encyclopedia) Le Bon, Gustave güstäv´ lə bôN, 1841–1931, French psychologist and sociologist. He was the author of a number of works on social psychology, in which he expounded theories of national…

Hobhouse, Leonard Trelawney

(Encyclopedia) Hobhouse, Leonard Trelawney, 1864–1929, English philosopher, sociologist, and journalist. He taught at Oxford and at the Univ. of London. Hobhouse sought to show with evidence from…

Ward, Lester Frank

(Encyclopedia) Ward, Lester Frank, 1841–1913, American sociologist and paleontologist, b. Joliet, Ill. Largely self-educated, he eventually took degrees in medicine and law. He worked as a government…

Mauss, Marcel

(Encyclopedia) Mauss, Marcel märsĕl´mōs, 1872–1950, French sociologist and anthropologist. Nephew of eminant sociologist Émile Durkheim, Mauss graduated from the Univ. of Bordeaux and the École…

functionalism

(Encyclopedia) functionalism, in anthropology and sociology, a theory stressing the importance of interdependence among all behavior patterns and institutions within a social system to its long-term…

Myrdal, Alva

(Encyclopedia) Myrdal, Alva äl´vä mĭr´däl, Swed. mür´däl, 1902–86, Swedish sociologist, diplomat, and political leader. As a sociologist in the 1930s, she initiated a national program establishing…

Gumplowicz, Ludwig

(Encyclopedia) Gumplowicz, Ludwig lo͞ot´vĭkh go͝om´plōvĭch, 1838–1909, Austrian sociologist, political scientist, and jurist. From 1897 to 1909 he was a professor at Graz. He held that social…