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Indian Territory

(Encyclopedia) Indian Territory, in U.S. history, name applied to the country set aside for Native Americans by the Indian Intercourse Act (1834). In the 1820s, the federal government began moving the Five Ci...

Dawes Commission

(Encyclopedia) Dawes Commission, commission to the Five Civilized Tribes, created by the U.S. Congress in 1893 under the Dawes Act with H. L. Dawes as chairman. Its aim was the reorganization of the Indi...

Watie, Stand

(Encyclopedia) Watie, Stand wät´ē [key], 1806–71, Native American leader and Confederate general, b. near Rome, Ga., as Degataga Oowatie. Of mixed white and Cherokee descent, he favored moving in the fa...

Bonaparte, Charles Joseph

(Encyclopedia) Bonaparte, Charles Joseph, 1851–1921, U.S. cabinet official, b. Baltimore; grandson of Jérôme Bonaparte and Elizabeth Patterson. A lawyer and political leader in Baltimore, he identified hi...

Lumbee

(Encyclopedia) Lumbee, descendants of Native Americans whose language belonged to the Algonquian branch of the Algonquian-Wakashan linguistic stock (see Native American languages ). The ancestors of the...

Parker, Isaac Charles

(Encyclopedia) Parker, Isaac Charles, 1838–96, American frontier judge, b. Belmont co., Ohio. Self-taught in law, Parker began practice in St. Joseph, Mo., in 1859. He was elected to the U.S. House of Repre...

Pike, Albert

(Encyclopedia) Pike, Albert, 1809–91, American lawyer, Confederate general in the Civil War, b. Boston. He settled (1832) in Arkansas, where he became a newspaper editor and a lawyer. He was a captain in th...

Chisholm Trail

(Encyclopedia) Chisholm Trail, route over which vast herds of cattle were driven from Texas to the railheads in Kansas after the Civil War. Its name is generally believed to come from Jesse Chisholm, a part-C...

Five Civilized Tribes

(Encyclopedia) Five Civilized Tribes, inclusive term used since mid-19th cent. for the Cherokee , Chickasaw , Choctaw , Creek , and Seminole tribes of E Oklahoma. By 1850 some 6...

Choctaw

(Encyclopedia) Choctaw chŏk´tô [key], Native North Americans whose language belongs to the Muskogean branch of the Hokan-Siouan linguistic stock (see Native American languages ). They formerly occup...