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Freedmen's Bureau

(Encyclopedia) Freedmen's Bureau, in U.S. history, a federal agency, formed to aid and protect the newly freed blacks in the South after the Civil War. Established by an act of Mar. 3, 1865,?

Macquarie, Lachlan

(Encyclopedia) Macquarie, Lachlan m?kwr?, 1761?1824, governor (1809?21) of the British colonies in Australia. Sent to replace the corrupt rule of the officers of the original convict guard, he?

Dunn, Oscar James

(Encyclopedia) Dunn, Oscar James, c.1825?71, African-American politician, lieutenant governor of Louisiana (1868?71), b. New Orleans. A former slave, he fought for the Union and joined the Republican?

Delany, Martin Robinson

(Encyclopedia) Delany, Martin Robinson d?l?n?, 1812?85, American black leader, b. Charles Town, Va. (now in West Virginia). The son of free blacks, he attended a black school in Pittsburgh and?

Howard University

(Encyclopedia) Howard University, at Washington, D.C.; coeducational; with federal support. It was founded in 1867 by Gen. Oliver O. Howard of the Freedmen's Bureau, to provide education for?


(Encyclopedia) patron [Lat.,=like a father], one who lends influential support to some person, cause, art or institution. Patronage existed in various ancient cultures but was primarily a Roman?

Fleming, Walter Lynwood

(Encyclopedia) Fleming, Walter Lynwood, 1874?1932, American historian, b. near Brundidge, Ala. He taught at West Virginia Univ. (1904?7) and at Louisiana State Univ. (1907?17) before becoming?

black codes

(Encyclopedia) black codes, in U.S. history, series of statutes passed by the ex-Confederate states, 1865?66, dealing with the status of the newly freed slaves. They varied greatly from state to?

Williams, Daniel Hale

(Encyclopedia) Williams, Daniel Hale, 1858?1931, American surgeon, b. Hollidaysburg, Pa., M.D. Northwestern Univ., 1883. As surgeon of the South Side Dispensary in Chicago (1884?91), he became keenly?