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Ponge, Francis

(Encyclopedia) Ponge, Francis fräNsēs´ pôNzh [key], 1899–1988, French essayist and poet. A controversial figure, he was opposed to emotional and symbolic poetic methods. His method was…


(Encyclopedia) Ping-Pong: see table tennis .

Francis I

(Encyclopedia) Francis I, emperor of Austria: see Francis II , Holy Roman emperor.

Francis I

(Encyclopedia) Francis I, 1708–65, Holy Roman emperor (1745–65), duke of Lorraine (1729–37) as Francis Stephen, grand duke of Tuscany (1737–65), husband of Archduchess Maria…

Francis I

(Encyclopedia) Francis I, 1494–1547, king of France (1515–47), known as Francis of Angoulême before he succeeded his cousin and father-in-law, King Louis XII. Wars with the…

Francis I

(Encyclopedia) Francis I, 1777–1830, king of the Two Sicilies (1825–30), son and successor of Ferdinand I. He continued the ruthless and reactionary policy of his father, and his court…


(Encyclopedia) Francis, 1936–, pope (2013–), an Argentinian (b. Buenos Aires to Italian immigrants) named Jorge Mario Bergoglio; successor of Benedict XVI . Francis, the first non…


(Encyclopedia) Francis, 1554–84, French prince, duke of Alençon and Anjou; youngest son of King Henry II of France and Catherine de' Medici . Although ill-shapen,…

Saint Francis

(Encyclopedia) Saint Francis, river, Canada: see Saint François .

Francis II

(Encyclopedia) Francis II, 1544–60, king of France (1559–60), son of King Henry II and Catherine de' Medici. He married (1558) Mary Queen of Scots (Mary Stuart), and during his…